Schlagwort-Archive: Passeriformes

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Passeriformes

Familie incertae sedis

Certhiops rummeli Manegold

Corvitalusoides grandiculus Boles

Jamna szybiaki Bocheński, Tomek, Bujoczek & Wertz

Kischinskinia scandens Volkova & Zelenkov

Resoviaornis jamrozi Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz & Świdnicka

Sylvosimadaravis janossyi (Kessler et Hír)

Wieslochia weissi Mayr & Manegold

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

Acanthisittidae

Kuiornis indicator Worthy et al.

Acanthizidae

Acanthizidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus major Kessler
Acrocephalus minor Kessler
Acrocephalus kordosi Kessler
Acrocephalus kretzoii Kessler
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Hippolais veterior Kessler

Aegithalidae

Aegithalos congruis Kessler
Aegithalos gaspariki Kessler

Alaudidae

Alauda trivadari Kessler

Calandrella gali Kessler

Galerida cserhatensis Kessler & Hír
Galerida pannonica Kessler

Lullula minor Kessler
Lullula minuscula Kessler
Lullula neogradensis Kessler & Hír
Lullula parva Kessler

Melanocorypha minor Kessler

Praealauda hevesensis Kessler & Hír

Artamidae

Kurrartapu johnnguyeni Nguyen et al.

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla brevia Kessler
Bombycilla hamori Kessler & Hír
Bombycilla kubinyii Kessler

Cardinalidae

Passerina sp. ‘Yepómera, Mexiko’

Certhiidae

Certhia immensa Kessler

Cettidae

Cettia janossyi Kessler
Cettia kalmani Kessler

Cinclidae

Cinclus gaspariki Kessler
Cinclus major Kessler & Hír
Cinclus minor Kessler

Cinclosomatidae

Cinclosoma elachum Nguyen, Archer & Hand

Climacteridae

Climacteris sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Cormobates sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Corvidae

Corvus annectens Shufeldt
Corvus harkanyensis
 Kessler
Corvus hungaricus Lambrecht
Corvus pliocaenicus (Portis)
Corvus praecorax Depéret
Corvus shufeldti Sharpe

Henocitta brodkorbi Holman

Miocitta galbraethi Brodkorb

Miocorvus larteti (Milne-Edwards)

Miopica paradoxa Kurotschkin & Sobolew

Pica pica ssp. major Mourer-Chauviré
Pica mourerae Seguí

Protocitta ajax Brodkorb
Protocitta dixi Brodkorb

Pyrrhocorax graculus ssp. vetus Kretzoi

Dasyornithidae

Dasyornis walterbolesi Nguyen

Emberizidae

Emberiza bartkoi Kessler & Hír
Emberiza gaspariki Kessler
Emberiza media Kessler
Emberiza pannonica Kessler
Emberiza parva Kessler
Emberiza polgardiensis Kessler

Pedinorhis stirpsarcana Olson & McKittrick

Plectrophenax veterior Kessler

Estrildidae

Estrildidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Eurylaimidae

Eurylaimidae gen. & sp. ‘Wintersdorf, Deutschland’

Fringillidae

Carduelis kretzoii Kessler
Carduelis lambrechti Kessler
Carduelis medius Kessler
Carduelis parvulus Kessler

Coccothraustes balcanicus Boev
Coccothraustes major Kessler
Coccothraustes simeonovi Boev

Fringilla kormosi Kessler
Fringilla petenyii Kessler

Loxia csarnotanus Kessler
Loxia patevi Boev

Pinicola kubinyii Kessler

Pyrrhula gali Kessler
Pyrrhula minor Kessler

Furnariidae

Pseudoseisuropsis nehuen Noriega
Pseudoseisuropsis cuelloi Claramunt & Rinderknecht
Pseudoseisuropsis wintu Stefanini et al.

Hirundinidae

Delichon major Kessler
Delichon polgardiensis Kessler
Delichon pusillus Kessler

Hirundinidae gen. & sp. ‘Langebaanweg, Südafrika’ (mehrere spp.)

Hirundo aprica Feduccia
Hirundo gracilis Kessler
Hirundo major Kessler

Riparia minor Kessler

Icteridae

Cremaster tytthus (Brodkorb)

Euphagus magnirostris
 (Miller)

Icterus sp.
 ‘Talara, Peru’

Molothrus sp.
 ‘Talara, Peru’

Pandanaris convexa
 (Miller)

Pyelorhamphus molothroides
 (Miller)

Laniidae

Lanius capeki Kessler
Lanius hungaricus Kessler
Lanius intermedius Kessler
Lanius major Kessler
Lantus schreteri Kessler & Hír

Leiotrichidae

Turdoides borealis Jánossy

Locustellidae

Locustella janossyi Kessler
Locustella kordosi Kessler
Locustella mana Kessler

Locustellidae gen. & sp.
 ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Megalurus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Maluridae

Maluridae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Meliphagidae

Meliphagidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’ (mehrere spp.)

Menuridae

Menura tyawanoides Boles

Motacillidae

Anthus antecedens Kessler & Hír
Anthus baranensis Kessler
Anthus hiri Kessler

Motacilla intermedia Kessler
Motacilla minor Kessler
Motacilla robusta Kessler

Muscicapidae

Erithacus horusitzkyi Kessler & Hír
Erithacus minor Kessler

Luscinia denesi Kessler
Luscinia pliocaenica Kessler
Luscinia praeluscinia Kessler & Hír

Monticola pongraczii Kessler

Muscicapa leganyii Kessler & Hír
Muscicapa miklosi
 Kessler
Muscicapa petenyii Kessler

Oenanthe kormosi Kessler
Oenanthe pongraczi Kessler

Phoenicurus baranensis Kessler
Phoenicurus erikai Kessler

Saxicola baranensis Kessler
Saxicola lambrechti Kessler
Saxicola magna Kessler
Saxicola parva Kessler

Neosittidae

Daphoenositta trevorworthyi Nguyen

Oriolidae

Longimornis robustirostrata Boles

Oriolus beremendensis Kessler

Orthonychidae

Orthonyx kaldowinyeri Boles

Palaeoscinidae (?)

Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard

Paridae

Parus medius Kessler
Parus parvulus Kessler
Parus robustus Kessler

Passerellidae

Ammodramus eurius Brodkorb
Ammodramus hatcheri (Shufeldt)

Passeridae

Passer hiri Kessler
Passer minusculus Kessler
Passer pannonicus Kessler

Petroicidae

Petroicidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Phylloscopidae

Phylloscopus miocaenicus Kessler & Hír
Phylloscopus pliocaenicus Kessler
Phylloscopus venczeli Kessler

Pomatostomidae

Pomatostomus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Prunellidae

Prunella freudenthali Kessler
Prunella kormosi Kessler

Psittacopedidae

Eofringillirostrum boudreauxi Mayr, Ksepka & Grande
Eofringillirostrum parvulum Mayr, Ksepka & Grande

Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe

Psittacopes lepidus Mayr & Daniels

Pumiliornis tessellatus Mayr

Regulidae

Regulus bulgaricus Boev
Regulus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sittidae

Sitta gracilis Kessler
Sitta pusilla Kessler
Sitta senogalliensis Portis
Sitta villanyensis Kessler

Sturnidae

Sturnus baranensis Kessler
Sturnus brevis Kessler
Sturnus kretzoii Kessler & Hír
Sturnus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sylviidae

Sylvia intermedia Kessler
Sylvia pussila Kessler

Tichodromidae

Tichodroma apeki Kessler

Troglodytidae

Troglodytes robustus Kessler

Turdidae

Meridiocichla salotti Louchart

Turdicus minor Kessler & Hír
Turdicus pannonicus Kessler

Turdus major Kessler
Turdus medius Kessler
Turdus minor Kessler
Turdus miocaenicus Kessler
Turdus polgardiensis Kessler

Zygodactylidae

Eozygodactylus americanus Weidig

Primoscens minutus Harrison & Walker

Primozygodactylus ballmanni Mayr
Primozygodactylus danielsi Mayr
Primozygodactylus eunjooae Mayr & Zelenkov
Primozygodactylus longibrachium Mayr
Primozygodactylus major Mayr
Primozygodactylus quintus Mayr

Zygodactylus grandei Smith, DeBee & Clarke
Zygodactylus grivensis Ballmann
Zygodactylus ignotus Ballmann
Zygodactylus luberonensis Mayr
Zygodactylus ochlurus Hieronymus, Waugh & Clarke

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[1] Jeno Kessler; János Hír: The avifauna in North Hungary during the Miocene Part II. Földtani Közlöny 142(2): 149-168. 2012
[2] Nikita V. Zelenkov: The revised avian fauna of Rudabànya (Hungary, Late Miocene). Contribuciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturalis “Bernardino Rivadavia” 7: 253-266. 2017

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bearbeitet: 23.12.2019

FMNH PA789

This is a small bird from the Eocene of Wyoming, USA, it was only about 10 cm long and is so far known from a complete skeleton with most of the feathers preserved as well.

The bird is not yet described but is apparently currently under study, it may turn out to be related to Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe, and to belong into a new family, probably named the Morsorornithidae or alike, which then again are perhaps somehow related to the mousebird/parrot/songbird ‘orbit’.

The reconstruction shows it while somewhat stretching its left wing, it was ‘fun’ to draw all this wing feathers, and I probably will do that NEVER EVER AGAIN!!!   😉

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A little update here:

This bird is now apparently included into the genus Morsoravis. [2]

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References:

[1] Lance Grande: The Lost World of Fossil Lake: Snapshots from Deep Time. University of Chicago Press 2013
[2] Daniel T. Ksepka; Lance Grande; Gerald Mayr: Oldest finch-beaked birds reveal parallel ecological radiations in the earliest evolution of passerines. Current Evolution 29(4): 657-663. 2019

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edited: 23.01.2018; 07.12.2019

Some Micronesian beauties

A while ago I found this Japanese book about the birds of Micronesia online while searching for I don’t no what, it originally probably included more than these three plates, however, these are the only ones that I could find and I want to share them here because they are so exceedingly beautiful.:

Tokutaro Momiyama: Horyo Nanyo Shoto-san chorui. Tokyo: Nihon Chogakkai: Taisho 11. 1922
(public domain)

***

I will name the birds with their current names in the order in which they are depicted.

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White-throated Ground Dove (Alopecoenas xanthonurus ), female and male 
Caroline Ground Dove (Alopecoenas kubaryi)
White-browed Crake (Amaurornis cinereus)
Pohnpei Lorikeet (Trichoglossus rubiginosus)
Purple-capped Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus ponapensis)
Micronesian Imperial-Pigeon (Ducula oceanica ssp. monacha)
Kosrae Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus hernsheimi), juvenile
Truk Monarch (Monarcha rugensis), young male, adult male, and female
Yap Olive White-eye (Zosterops oleagineus)
Truk White-eye (Rukia ruki)

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edited: 20.10.2019

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

This is the “newest” of the European Oligocene birds with “brittly limbs”, this time only the wingbones are preserved. These are unlike the wingbones of any other passerine bird known so far, extant or extinct.

The bird was small, about the size of a Great Tit (Parus major L.), I will see if I am able to make some kind of reconstruction, whatsoever. [1]

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References:

[1] Zbigniew M. Bocheński, Teresa Tomek, Krzysztof Wertz, Johannes Happ, Małgorzata Bujoczek & Ewa Świdnicka: Articulated avian remains from the early Oligocene of Poland adds to our understanding of Passerine evolution. Palaeontologia Electronica 21(2). 2018

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Let’s have a little update here.

I’ve made a little sketch, based on a Great Tit, however, knowing that this bird was not related to any of the modern Passeriformes, I thought of a little songbird-like creature resembling some of the Australian/Papuan “primitive” songbirds.

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my reconstruction, the bird reached a size of about 15 cm or in other words was indeed about the size of a Great Tit; remember, only the wing bones and some impressions of several wing feathers are known

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edited: 24.09.2018; 14.08.2019

Rufous Antpitta x six

The Rufous Antpitta is a more or less completely plain rufous-colored typical Antpitta that inhabits the dense forests of the Andes and their foothills from northern Bolivia to parts of southern Venezuela.

The bird reaches sizes from about 14,5 to 15 cm.

The species is split into six subspecies all of which are now about to be upgraded to species status, they will then probably be named as:

Bolivian Antpitta (Grallaria cochabambae J. Bond & Meyer de Schauensee)
Cajamarca Antpitta (Grallaria cajamarcae (Chapman))
North Peruvian Antpitta (Grallaria obscura Berlepsch & Stolzmann)
Rufous Antpitta (Grallaria rufula Lafresnaye)
Sierra Nevada Antpitta (Grallaria spatiator Bangs)
South Peruvian Antpitta (Grallaria occabambae (Chapman))

These future-former subspecies differ slightly in the the hue of their rufous-colored plumage, but very likely more so in their DNA.

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Rufous Antpitta (Grallaria (rufula ssp.) rufula … most likely)

Photo: Nigel Voaden

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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bearbeitet: 14.08.2019

Starling sketches

I made some sketches today, they’re supposed to be Rarotongan Starlings (Aplonis cinerascens).

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a somewhat transformed copy

I personally prefer these freehand sketches, at least the one on the right side, it somehow looks more life-like than the drawing above.

some freehanded sketches

Certhiops rummeli Manegold

Diese Art wurde 2008 beschrieben, so weit ich weiß anhand eines einzigen Knochens, eines vollständig erhaltenen rechten Tarsometatarsus, der immerhin der Überfamilie Certhioidea zugeordnet werden kann, nicht aber einer der rezenten Formen dieser Gruppe (Baumläufer, Mückenfänger, Zaunkönige) 

Meiner Meinung nach ähnelt der einzige bekannte Knochen jedoch am ehesten dem entsrechenden Knochen eines Kleibers.

Der Vogel wird eine Gesamtgröße von etwa 15 cm erreicht haben, war also größer als die meisten Baumläufer und kleiner als ein durchschnittlicher Kleiber.

Es handelt sich hierbei tatsächlich um den (bis jetzt) ältesten bekannten echten Singvogel der in Europa gefunden wurde.  

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Referenzen:  

[1] Albrecht Manegold: Earliest fossil record of the Certhioidea (treecreepers and allies) from the Early Miocene of Germany. Journal of Ornithology 149(2): 223-228. 2008  

Rekonstruktion; die Art erinnerte wohl am ehesten an einen Baumläufer/Kleiber-Mix

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bearbeitet: 25.02.2019

A reed warbler from Raivavae?

Hi there!

While reading some stuff in my ‚reed warbler book‘ [3] last night, I suddenly remembered that there was a sighting or rather a ‚hearing‘ of a reed warbler on an island where no such reed warbler was known to exist, and I was quite sure that this was one of the Cook Islands, but could not find any mention of it.

But then, i found it, and it was one of the Austral Islands, namely Raivavae, where a reed warbler was recorded in 1968, and it was apparently indeed not seen but heard only, but it was at least identified as being a reed warbler.

The island of Raivavae has no surviving endemic land bird species today, but of course did have some of them in the past, among them very, very, veeery likely also a reed warbler species, and in my humble opinion this appears to have survived until the mid 20th century at least.

***

So, I’ve checked my ‚usual suspects‘ and found some furter informations, but not really that much, unfortunately.

Te Manu: Bulletin de la Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie. Nr 24. September 1998:

Une espèce non identifiée d’Acrocephalus a été notée à Raivavae en 1968 mais n’a pas été retrouvé en 1990 (Seitre et Seitre 1991) et pouvait donc être un oiseau erratique.

translation:

An unidentified species of Acrocephalus was recorded at Raivavae in 1968 but was not found in 1990 (Seitre and Seitre 1991) and could therefore be an erratic bird.

This record obviously is mentioned by D. T. Holyoak; J.-C. Thibault in 1984 [1] but I was not able to read it myself, however, I’m rather convinced that the ‚erratic bird‘ more likely is meant to be what in German is called a „Irrgast“, a migratory bird that appeared on the island inadvertently while flying from one point to another.

But are there migratory reed warblers flying over the Austral Islands? No, because if they fly from north to south or back, they just do not cross the middle of the Pacific Ocean since the migratory reed warbler species only inhabit the continents of the ‚Old World‘ and those inhabiting the Polynesian islands do not migrate, as far as I know.

***

In chapter 7 of David W. Steadman’s ‚Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific birds‘ from 2006 [2] it is mentioned as Acrocephalus vaughani and as a ‚M, modern record‘ from Raivavae. How could I actually miss that until today?

****

I personally are rather sure that this single record from the island of Raivavae is indeed the last record of a former existing population of native, probably endemic, Raivavae Reed Warblers which now join the ever-growing list of extinct taxa. 

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References:

[1] D. T. Holyoak; J.-C. Thibault: Contribution à l’étude des oiseaux de Polynésie orientale. Mémoire du MNHN, Série A Zoologie 27: 121-122. 1984
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006
[3] David Pearson; Peter Kennerly: Reed and Bush Warblers. Christopher Helm 2009

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edited: 20.01.2019

Bruner’s Rail

Bruner’s Rail (Cacroenis inornatus Bruner) is a very enigmatic species of rail supposed to have been endemic to the Tuamotu Archipelago, whose name repeatedly appears in listings of extinct birds and other publications. [4]  

***  

Yet, this species has never existed, but see for yourself.:  

The name first appears in the “Field guide to the birds of French Polynesia” from 1972, obviously the first book about the birds of French Polynesia, and full of errors, some of them bad, others worst. [3]  

The story begins right with the discovery of the Cocos Finch in 1843.: [1][2]  

This bird, which is in all probability a female, is from Bow Island, and is, I believe, the only insessorial form that has been brought from thence. Only a single example was procured, and its principal interest consists in its forming an additional species of a small group of birds inhabiting the Galapagos, to which islands they had hitherto appeared to be peculiar. … 
Bow Island has truly little to boast of in its ornithology, since the only birds seen by us during a residence of six weeks at this Atol coral island were doves, the above new species of Cactornis, plover, a few black and white tern which appear attached to these situations, and herons; and none of these were at all numerous. The Cactornis inornatus was usually noticed about the lowly bushes of Petesia carnea, the succulent fruit of which most probably constitutes its chief food.
”  

***  

Bow- or La Harpe Island, both are old names for the Hao atoll in the middle of the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, and the plant mentioned in the text, Petesia carnea, is now known as Psychotria carnea (G. Forst.) A. C. Sm., a species that is native to Fiji and Tonga, and that has never existed in the Tuamotu Archipelago.  

***  

The bird is mentioned in the “Field guide to the birds of French Polynesia” [as Cacroenis inornatus] as being confusing and obscure but also as being small, speckled and generally brownish in appearance; it appears in a checklist at the end of the book [this time as Cactornis inornatus] as having been introduced to the Archipelago, which is complete bullsh**!  

***  

The Cocos Finch is now named as Pinaroloxias inornata (Gould), however, how this finch-like tanager finally ended up as a extinct rail species is still not known to me.  

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[1] John Gould: On nine new birds collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11. 103-107. 1843 
[2] John Edward Gray; John Gould; John Richardson; Richard Brinsley Hinds and others: The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur: under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, during the years 1836-42. London: Smith, Elder 1843-1846 
[3] Phillip L. Bruner; O. G. Dykes: Field guide to the birds of French Polynesia. Bishop Museum Press 1972 
[4] Greg Sherley; Rod Hay: Review of avifauna conservation needs in Polynesia. Bird Conservation Priorities and a Draft Avifauna Conservation Strategy for the Pacific Islands Region 10-17. 1999  

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Cocos Finch (Pinaroloxias inornata), female  

Depiction from: “John Edward Gray; John Gould; John Richardson; Richard Brinsley Hinds and others: The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur: under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, during the years 1836-42”  
(public domain)  

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edited: 26.09.2018

Irenidae – cryptic species

The excitingly beautiful Fairy-Bluebirds are officially a small family of only two species, the Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena cyanogastra) and the Asian Fairy-Bluebird (Irena puella), both including a number of subspecies.  

***  

Following a study from 2012 [1], however, there appear to exist eight species.:  

Andaman Fairy-Bluebird (Irena andamanica Abdulali) (formerly Irena puella ssp. andamanica Abdulali)  

Indonesian Fairy-Bluebird (Irena crinigera Sharpe) (formerly Irena puella ssp. crinigera Sharpe)  

Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena cyanogstra Vigors) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. cyanogastra Vigors)  

Ella’s Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena ellae Steere) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. ellae Steere)  

Hoogstral’s Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena hoogstraali Rand) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. hoogstraaliRand)  

Black-shouldered Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena melanochlamys Sharpe) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. melanochlamys Sharpe; but – was not included in this study!)  

Asian Fairy-Bluebird (Irena puella (Latham)), including three subspecies:  Irena puella ssp. malayensis F. Moore Irena puella ssp. puella (Latham) Irena puella ssp. turcosa Walden  

Palawan Fairy-Bluebird (Irena tweeddalei Sharpe) (formerly Irena puella ssp. tweeddalei Sharpe)  

***  

It is very interesting that most of these ‘new’ species were originally described as distinct species.  

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Palawan Fairy-Bluebird (Irena tweeddalei); above, and Black-shouldered Philippine fairy-Bluebird (Irena melanochlamys); below  

Depiction from: ‘R. Bowdler Sharpe: On the birds collected by Professor J. B. Steere in the Philippine Archipelago. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2(6): 307-355. 1877’  
(public domain)  

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update:

The Palawan Fairy-Bluebirds is now officially considered a full species and is included as such in the HBW Checklist of 2016. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Maria Moltesen; Martin Irestedt; Jon Fjeldså, Per G. P. Ericson, Knud A. Jønsson: Molecular phylogeny of Chloropsidae and Irenidae – Cryptic species and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 903-914. 2012 
[2] Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions; Ill edition Vol. 1 & 2. 2014/2017  

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edited: 15.01.2016; 17.09.2018

Psittacopes lepidus Mayr & Daniels

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When this tiny creature was first described it was thought to represent some parent form of the parrot order, however, it later [1] was reinvestigated and is now placed near the Passeriformes … near them, not among or in between them!  

My reconstruction is life sized, the bird here is nearly 12 cm long, the feathers, however, are not known, so are completely speculative!  

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References:

[1] Gerald Mayr: A reassessment of Eocene parrotlike fossils indicates a previously undetected radiation of zygodactyl stem group representatives of passerines (Passeriformes). Zoologica Scripta 44(6): 587–602. 2015  

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edited: 14.11.2017; 17.09.2018

Hawaiianische Vögel und ihre Namen

Ich dachte mir es wäre doch eine ganz gute Idee einmal eine Liste zu erstellen (ich liebe es Listen zu erstellen), und zwar eine von allen bekannten drepanidinen Finken der Hawai’i-Inseln und ihnen alle bekannten hawaiianischen Trivialnamen zuzuordnen – und – denen, deren einheimischer Name nicht mehr existiert, einen neuen zu ‚basteln‘.

Ich habe hier nur ‚meine‘ Namen in fett geschrieben und übersetzt.   

Viel Spaß!

***

Aidemedia chascaxNuku pololei [Gerader Schnabel] 
Aidemedia lutetiaeNuku pololei [Gerader Schnabel] 
Aidemedia zanclopsNuku pahi kakiwi [Sichelschnabel]  

Chloridops konaManoa ma’oma’o, Ma’oma’o-‘ai-naio [Dick und Grün, Grün frisst Naio] 
Chloridops regiskongiNuku pa‘a [Starker Schnabel] 
Chloridops wahiNuku palupalu [Schwacher Schabel]  

Ciridops anna – ‘Ula’-ai-hawane, Waaihawane 
Ciridops tenax‘Ula-me-‘ele’ele [Rot und Schwarz]  

Drepanis coccinea – ‘I’iwi, ‘I’iwi polena, ‘I’iwi popolo 
Drepanis funerea – Hoa, Mamo, ‘O’o nuku-mu , ‘O’o-nuku-umu 
Drepanis pacifica – Hoha, Hoho, Mamo  

Dysmorodrepanis munroi‘O’u nuku hakahaka [Lückenschnabel-Ou]  

Hemignathus affinis – Nuku pu‘u 
Hemignathus ellisianus – ‘Akialoa, Kipi 
Hemignathus flavus – ‘Amakihi 
Hemignathus hanapepe – Nuku pu‘u 
Hemignathus kauaiensis – ‘A’alawi, ‘Alawi, ‘Amakihi, ‘Amakihi ‘awa’awa, Kihi, Kihikihi 
Hemignathus lanaiensis – ‘Akialoa 
Hemignathus lucidus – Nuku pu‘u 
Hemignathus munroi – ‘Akiapola’au 
Hemignathus obscurus – ‘Akialoa, ‘Akihi-a-loa, ‘Akihi-loa 
Hemignathus stejnegeri – ‘Akialoa 
Hemignathus upupirostris‘Akihi-‘ai-‘ili la’au [Akihi frisst an Baumrinde] 
Hemignathus virens ssp. virens – ‘Amakihi 
Hemignathus virens ssp. wilsoni – ‘Amakihi 
Hemignathus vorpalisNuku ihe [Speerschnabel]  

Himatione freethi‘Apapane mai Kauo [Apapane von Laysan] 
Himatione sanguinea – ‘Akakani, ‘Akapane, ‘Apapane  

Loxioides bailleui – Palila 
Loxioides kikuchi Palila loa [Großer Palila]  

Loxops caeruleirostris – ‘Akeke’e, ‘O’u-holowai 
Loxops coccineus – ‘Akakane, ‘Akepa, ‘Akepeuie 
Loxops ochraceus – ‘Akakane, ‘Akepa, ‘Akepeuie 
Loxops wolstenholmei – ‘Akakane, ‘Akepa, ‘Akepeuie  

Magumma parva – ‘Alawi, ‘Anauani’i, ‘Anianiau  

Manucerthia mana – ‘Alawi  

Melamprosops phaeosoma – Po’o-uli  

Oreomystis bairdi – ‘Akikeke, ‘Akikihi, ‘Akikiki  

Orthiospiza howarthiManu kuahiwi, Manu mauka [Hochlandvogel, Vogel aus den Bergen]  

Palmeria dolei – ‘Akohekohe  

Paroreomyza flammea – Kakawahie 
Paroreomyza maculata – ‘Alauahio, ‘Alauwahio 
Paroreomyza montana ssp. montana – ‘Alauahio, ‘Alauwahio 
Paroreomyza montana ssp. newtoni – ‘Alauahio, ‘Alauwahio  

Pseudonestor xanthophrys – Kiwikiu  

Psittirostra psittacea – ‘O‘u  

Rhodacanthis flavicepsPo’o lena [Gelber Kopf] 
Rhodacanthis forfex – ?
Rhodacanthis litotes – ?
Rhodacanthis palmeri – Hopue, Po’o ‘alani [Orangefarbener Kopf]  

Telespiza cantansLele-i-honua, Melemele-‘ai-hua, Palila mai Kauo [Hüpft am Boden, Gelb frisst Eier, Palila von Laysan] 
Telespiza persecutrixPalila kahakai [Strand-Palila] 
Telespiza ultimaPalila mai Moku Manu [Palila von Nihoa] 
Telespiza ypsilonPalila iki, Palila kahakai [Kleiner Palila, Strand-Palila]  

Vangulifer mirandusHopu mea kolo, Nuku kumumu [Fängt Insekten, Stumpfer Schnabel] 
Vangulifer neophasisHopu mea kolo, Nuku kumumu [Fängt Insekten, Stumpfer Schnabel]  

Viridonia sagittirostrisNuku pua [Pfeilschnabel]  

Xestospiza conicaNuku ‚opu‘u [Kegelschnabel] 
Xestospiza fastigialis – ?

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bearbeitet: 17.04.2018

Pfeilschnabel

… mal wieder ein bisschen Zeit zum Zeichnen, mit Malen wird’s sicher wieder nix, nun ja ….

***

Aloha!

Darf ich vorstellen: Pfeilschnabel (Viridonia sagittirostris), auch, oder besser vormals, bekannt als Einsiedlerkleidervogel, Großer Amakihi oder Grünkleidervogel; ein Fink [jawohl, ein Fink] von der größten der Hawai’i-Inseln, Hawai’i selbst, und selbstverfreilich, wie es sich für einen ordentlichen hawaiianischen Vogel gehört, so richtig vollkommen sinnlos ausgerottet!

Mahalo nui loa, a hui hou kakou!

Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe

This bird was described in 2010, it was then thought to be somehow related to the Charadriiformes respectively to the Charadriiformes “orbit”, later it was assumed to belong in some kind of relationship with other likewise “well-known” birds like Eocuculus cherpinae (Chandler), or Pumiliornis tessellatus Mayr.

The reconstruction shows a tiny bird, some 12 cm long, with a sharp-pointed beak and a quite long neck, such a bird would have needed long tail feathers to stabilize its body – so I just gave it a long tail, cause the feathers are not preserved in the Fur Formation birds.

~~~

So here is how all begins, some cut-out bone drawings put together, lines made with a pencil etc..:

some puzzling

The final result is a quite life-like bird, maybe I got enough time to make a real painting, with colors and so on ….:

not charadriiform-alike at all

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References:

[1] Sara Bertelli; Bent K. Lindow; Gareth J. Dyke; Luis M. Chiappe: A well-preserved ‘charadriform-like’ fossil bird from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. Paleontology 53(3): 507-531. 2010
[2] Gerald Mayr: On the osteology and phylogenetic affinitis of Morsoravis sedilis (Aves) from the early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 59: 23-35. 2011

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edited: 22.01.2018

Eleven steps to draw a bird

Hi there!  

It’s coffee/tea time, whatever you prefer … and it’s dark outside, and thus it’s dark inside too.  

***

I have decided to make another >step by step<, or >how to do<, or whatever you may call it series, of how I draw a bird, this time it is another extinct one, yet only known from two of its bones, so the coloration is just imagined.  

1: a sketch is made    

2: the sketch is fixed with the pencil    

3: the sketch is finished, the surroundings are included    

4: the rubber color is put on the bird    

5: the rubber color has dried, the background is created with water color and a sponge    

6: the background has dried, the rubber color is rubbed away    

7: the actual coloring begins, I use my loved watercolor pencils    

8/9: the watercolor is blurred with a brush and with water      

10: the water has dried, the details are now worked out using the watercolor pencils again    

11: the most important step, probably; the last details are worked out with a pencil, and the white dot is placed inside the eye    

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The end result is a drawing of a Cuban Tapaculo (Scytalopus sp.)  

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson; Evgeny N. Kurochkin: Fossil evidence of a tapaculo in the Quaternary of Cuba (Aves: Passeriformes: Scytalopodidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100(2): 353-357. 1987

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edited: 09.11.2017

A suboscine bird from France

I have talked about the European Oligocene epoch and its birds with brittly limbs before.  

Here’s another such brittle-limbed bird from the early Oligocene of Europe, this one has lost its wings, or at least one wing, literally … it is known from parts of the right wing.  

The most interesting fact in this case is, the bird belonged to a group of birds that are part of the Passeriformes but aren’t songbirds, these are called suboscine birds.  

The whole group of suboscine birds is now restricted to, well, it’s actually occurring worldwide, especially in South America, but it is not found in Europe today.  

The bird appears to have been of similar size to the Sunbird Asities (Neodrepanis spp.), which today inhabit the island of Madagascar (… these are suboscine birds as well, by the way).    

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I made this little drawing of this nameless creature bearing a Neodrepanis sp. in mind, but without specialized features like an elongated beak for nectar-feeding etc..  

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References:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Albrecht Manegold: A Small Suboscine-like Passeriform Bird from the Early Oligocene of France / Una Pequeña Ave Paseriforme Tipo Suboscine del Oligoceno Temprano de Francia. The Condor 108(3): 717-720. 2006

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edited: 19.07.2017

Kui-Schlüpfer – Kuiornis indicator Worthy et al.

Neuseeland während des unteren Miozäns (vor 19 bis 16 Millionen Jahren): ein kleiner Kui-Schlüpfer sitzt auf einem blühenden Fuchsienzweig.

Rekonstruktion; nur eine schnelle Skizze

Der Kui-Schlüpfer ist der älteste Vertreter der Acanthisittidae, einer Vogelfamilie, die man nur aus Neuseeland kennt. Er soll in seiner Größe in etwa dem Grenadier oder Grünschlüpfer (Acanthisitta chloris (Sparrmann)) entsprochen haben, einem von nur zwei überlebenden Arten der Familie, er war also ein winziges Vögelchen.

Die Blüten gehöhren zu Fuchsia antiqua D. E. Lee, Conran, Bannister, U. Kaulfuss & Mildenh., ihrerseits die älteste bekannte Fuchsienart. Ich habe sie hier als baumartige Art dargestellt, ähnlich der noch lebenden neuseeländischen Baumfuchsie (Fuchsia excorticata (J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.) L. f.).

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Referenzen:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; Suzanne J. Hand; Jacqueline M. T. Nguyen; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Jennifer P. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Walter E. Boles; Michael Archer: Biogeographical and Phylogenetic Implications of an Early Miocene Wren (Aves: Passeriformes: Acanthisittidae) from New Zealand. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(2): 479-498. 2010 
[2] Daphne E. Lee; John G. Conran; Jennifer M. Bannister; Uwe Kaulfuss; Dallas C. Mildenhall: A fossil Fuchsia (Onagraceae) flower and an anther mass with in situ pollen from the early Miocene of New Zealand. American Journal of Botany 100(10): 2052-2065. 2013

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bearbeitet: 08.01.2017

Darwin’s Finches or Galápagos Finches

Here is an updated species list, following “Aves – A Taxonomy in Flux”.:

Beck’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. becki)
Santa Fe Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. bifasciata)
Espanola Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. cinerascens)
Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. fusca)
San Cristobal Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. luteola)
Genovesa Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. mentalis)
Ridgway’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. ridgwayi)

Green Warbler Finch (Certhidea olivacea)

Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (Geospiza acutirostris)

Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. conirostris)
Darwin’s Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. darwini)

Sharpe’s Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis)

Medium Ground-Finch (Geospiza fortis)

Small Ground-Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa)

Mangrove Finch (Geospiza heliobates)

Large Ground-Finch (Geospiza magnirostris)

Woodpecker Finch (Geospiza pallidus ssp. pallidus)
Fernandina Woodpecker Finch (Geospiza pallidus ssp. productus)
San Cristobal Woodpecker Finch (Geospiza pallidus ssp. striatipectus)

Small Tree-Finch (Geospiza parvulus ssp. parvulus)
Salvin’s Small Tree-Finch (Geospiza parvulus ssp. salvini)

Genovesa Cactus-Finch (Geospiza propinqua)

Fernandina Large Tree-Finch (Geospiza psittacula ssp. affinis)
Pinta Large Tree-Finch (Geospiza psittacula ssp. habeli)
Large Tree-Finch (Geospiza psittacula ssp. psittacula)

Medium Tree-Finch (Geospiza pauper)

Vampire Finch (Geospiza septentrionalis)

Pinta Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. abingdoni)
Common Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. intermedia)
Rothschild’s Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. rothschildi)
San Salvador Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. scandens)

Vegetarian Finch (Platyspiza crassirostris)

***

As before, I decided to arrange the names simply in alphabetical order, and to exclude the species’ authors (and the Cocos Island Finch (Pinaroloxias inornata (Gould)), which is one of the Darwin’s Finches but does not inhabit the Galápagos Islands).

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References:

[1] Heather L. Farrington; Lucinda P. Lawson; Courtney M. Clark; Kenneth Petren: The evolutionary history of Darwin’s finches: Speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape. Evolution 68(10): 2932-2944. 2014
[2] Sangeet Lamichhaney; Jonas Berglund; Markus Sällman Almén; Khurram Maqbool; Manfred Grabherr; Alvaro Martinez-Barrio; Marta Promerová; Carl-Johan Rubin; Chao Wang; Neda Zamani; B. Rosemary Grant; Peter R. Grant; Matthew T. Webster; Leif Andersson: Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing. Nature 518: 371-375. 2015
[3] http://jboyd.net/Taxo/taxo1.html

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edited: 03.12.2016

Darwin’s Finches or Galápagos Finches

… having criticized the “A Guide to the Birds of the Galápagos Islands” for not naming the numerous subspecies of the finches, I will now add here a list of all these subspecies, I have named them, to the best of my knowledge, with common names as well.:

Mangrove Finch (Camarhynchus heliobates)

Woodpecker Finch (Camarhynchus pallidus ssp. pallidus)
Fernandina Woodpecker Finch (Camarhynchus pallidus ssp. productus)
San Cristobal Woodpecker Finch (Camarhynchus pallidus ssp. striatipectus)

Small Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus parvulus ssp. parvulus)
Salvin’s Small Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus parvulus ssp. salvini)

Fernandina Large Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus psittacula ssp. affinis)
Pinta Large Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus psittacula ssp. habeli)
Large Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus psittacula ssp. psittacula)

Medium Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus pauper)

Beck’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. becki)
Santa Fe Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. bifasciata)
Espanola Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. cinerascens)
Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. fusca)
San Cristobal Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. luteola)
Genovesa Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. mentalis)
Ridgway’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. ridgwayi)

Green Warbler Finch (Certhidea olivacea)

Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. conirostris)
Darwin’s Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. darwini)
Genovesa Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. propinqua)

Fernandina Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis ssp. debilirostris)
Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis ssp. difficilis)
Vampire Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis ssp. septentrionalis)

Medium Ground-Finch (Geospiza fortis)

Small Ground-Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa)

Large Ground-Finch (Geospiza magnirostris)

Pinta Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. abingdoni)
Common Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. intermedia)
Rothschild’s Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. rothschildi)
San Salvador Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. scandens)

Vegetarian Finch (Platyspiza crassirostris)

~~~

Some of these subspecies may now warrant species status (for example the Vampire Finch or Vampire Ground-Finch), however, I’m not yet fully into that matter … did I mention before that it appears to be quite difficult to get good information about these birds?

~~~

… hm, maybe I was a bit too excessive with the tags ….   😛

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edited: 02.12.2016