Archiv der Kategorie: fossile Vögel

Remiornis

Remiornis heberti Lemoine, ein rätselhafter Ratit aus dem oberen Paläozän, der wahrscheinlich nicht näher mit den heutigen Straußen verwandt war.

Rekonstruktion; oder eher eine Skizze einer Rekonstruktion

Der Vogel ähnelte wohl am ehesten einem plumpen Tinamu und war wohl flugunfähig.

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bearbeitet: 25.12.2019

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Odontopterygiformes

Pelagornithidae

Caspiodontornis kobystanicus Aslanova & Burchak-Abramovich

Cyphornis magnus Cope

Dasornis emuinus (Bowerbank)

Gigantornis eaglesomei Andrews

Macrodontopteryx oweni Harrison & C. A. Walker

Odontopteryx toliapica Owen

Osteodontornis orri Howard

Palaeochenoides mioceanus Shufeldt

Pelagornis miocaenus Lartet
Pelagornis mauretanicus Mourer-Chauviré & Geraads
Pelagornis chilensis Mayr & Rubilar
Pelagornis sandersi Ksepka

Protodontopteryx ruthae Mayr et. al.

Pseudodontornis longidentata Harrison & C. A. Walker
Pseudodontornis longirostris (Spulski)
Pseudodontornis stirtoni Howard & Warter
Pseudodontornis tenuirostris Harrison
Pseudodontornis tshulensis (Averianov, Panteleev, Potapova & Nesov)

Tympanonesiotes wetmorei Hopson

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bearbeitet: 25.12.2019

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Sphenisciformes

Spheniscidae

Anthropodyptes gilli Simpson 

Anthropornis grandis Wiman
Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Wiman

Aprosdokitos mikrotero Acosta-Hospitaleche et al.

Aptenodytes ridgeni Simpson
Apterodytes ictus Ameghino

Archaeospheniscus lopdelli Marples
Archaeospheniscus lowei Marples
Archaeospheniscus wimani Marples

Arthrodytes andrewsi Ameghino

Crossvallia unienwillia Tambussi et al.
Crossvallia (?) waiparensis Mayr, De Pietri, Love, Mannering & Scofield

Dege hendeyi Simpson

Delphinornis arctowskii Myrcha et al.
Delphinornis larseni Wiman

Duntroonornis parvus Marples

Icadyptes salasi Clarke et al.

Inguza predemersus Simpson

Kaiika maxwelli Fordyce & Thomas

Kairuku grebneffi Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones
Kairuku waitaki Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones

Korora oliveri Marples

Kumimanu biceae Mayr et al.

Kupoupou stilwelli Blokland, Reid, Worthy, Tennyson, Clarke & Scofield

Madrynornis mirandus Acosta-Hospitaleche et al.

Marambiornis exilis Myrcha et al.

Marplesornis novaezealandiae Marples

Mesetaornis polaris Myrcha et al.

Muriwaimanu tuatahi Slack et al.

Nucleornis insolitus Simpson

Orthopteryx gigas Wiman

Pachydyptes ponderosus Oliver
Pachydyptes simpsoni Jenkins

Palaeeudyptes antarcticus Huxley
Palaeeudyptes gunnari Wiman
Palaeeudyptes klekowskii Myrcha et al.
Palaeeudyptes marplesi Brodkorb

Paraptenodytes antarcticus Moreno & Mercerat
Paraptenodytes brodkorbi Simpson
Paraptenodytes robustus Ameghino

Perudyptes devriesi Clarke et al.

Platydyptes amiesi Marples
Platydyptes marplesi Simpson
Platydyptes novaezealandiae Oliver

Pseudaptenodytes macraei Simpson
Pseudaptenodytes minor Simpson

Pygoscelis calderensis Acosta-Hospitaleche, Chávez & Fritis
Pygoscelis grandis Walsh & Suarez
Pygoscelis tyreei Simpson

Sequiwaimanu rosieae Mayr et al.

Spheniscidae gen. & sp. ‘Burnside Formation, Neuseeland’

Spheniscus chilensis Emslie & Correa 
Spheniscus megaramphus Stucchi et al.
Spheniscus muizoni Gohlich
Spheniscus urbinai Stucchi

Tonniornis mesetaensis Tambussi et al.
Tonniornis minimum Tambussi et al.

Waimanu manneringi Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny

Wimanornis seymourensis Simpson

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bearbeitet: 23.12.2019

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Passeriformes

Familie incertae sedis

Certhiops rummeli Manegold

Corvitalusoides grandiculus Boles

Jamna szybiaki Bocheński, Tomek, Bujoczek & Wertz

Kischinskinia scandens Volkova & Zelenkov

Resoviaornis jamrozi Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz & Świdnicka

Sylvosimadaravis janossyi (Kessler et Hír)

Wieslochia weissi Mayr & Manegold

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

Acanthisittidae

Kuiornis indicator Worthy et al.

Acanthizidae

Acanthizidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Acrocephalidae

Acrocephalus major Kessler
Acrocephalus minor Kessler
Acrocephalus kordosi Kessler
Acrocephalus kretzoii Kessler
Acrocephalus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Hippolais veterior Kessler

Aegithalidae

Aegithalos congruis Kessler
Aegithalos gaspariki Kessler

Alaudidae

Alauda trivadari Kessler

Calandrella gali Kessler

Galerida cserhatensis Kessler & Hír
Galerida pannonica Kessler

Lullula minor Kessler
Lullula minuscula Kessler
Lullula neogradensis Kessler & Hír
Lullula parva Kessler

Melanocorypha minor Kessler

Praealauda hevesensis Kessler & Hír

Artamidae

Kurrartapu johnnguyeni Nguyen et al.

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla brevia Kessler
Bombycilla hamori Kessler & Hír
Bombycilla kubinyii Kessler

Cardinalidae

Passerina sp. ‘Yepómera, Mexiko’

Certhiidae

Certhia immensa Kessler

Cettidae

Cettia janossyi Kessler
Cettia kalmani Kessler

Cinclidae

Cinclus gaspariki Kessler
Cinclus major Kessler & Hír
Cinclus minor Kessler

Cinclosomatidae

Cinclosoma elachum Nguyen, Archer & Hand

Climacteridae

Climacteris sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Cormobates sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Corvidae

Corvus annectens Shufeldt
Corvus harkanyensis
 Kessler
Corvus hungaricus Lambrecht
Corvus pliocaenicus (Portis)
Corvus praecorax Depéret
Corvus shufeldti Sharpe

Henocitta brodkorbi Holman

Miocitta galbraethi Brodkorb

Miocorvus larteti (Milne-Edwards)

Miopica paradoxa Kurotschkin & Sobolew

Pica pica ssp. major Mourer-Chauviré
Pica mourerae Seguí

Protocitta ajax Brodkorb
Protocitta dixi Brodkorb

Pyrrhocorax graculus ssp. vetus Kretzoi

Dasyornithidae

Dasyornis walterbolesi Nguyen

Emberizidae

Emberiza bartkoi Kessler & Hír
Emberiza gaspariki Kessler
Emberiza media Kessler
Emberiza pannonica Kessler
Emberiza parva Kessler
Emberiza polgardiensis Kessler

Pedinorhis stirpsarcana Olson & McKittrick

Plectrophenax veterior Kessler

Estrildidae

Estrildidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Eurylaimidae

Eurylaimidae gen. & sp. ‘Wintersdorf, Deutschland’

Fringillidae

Carduelis kretzoii Kessler
Carduelis lambrechti Kessler
Carduelis medius Kessler
Carduelis parvulus Kessler

Coccothraustes balcanicus Boev
Coccothraustes major Kessler
Coccothraustes simeonovi Boev

Fringilla kormosi Kessler
Fringilla petenyii Kessler

Loxia csarnotanus Kessler
Loxia patevi Boev

Pinicola kubinyii Kessler

Pyrrhula gali Kessler
Pyrrhula minor Kessler

Furnariidae

Pseudoseisuropsis nehuen Noriega
Pseudoseisuropsis cuelloi Claramunt & Rinderknecht
Pseudoseisuropsis wintu Stefanini et al.

Hirundinidae

Delichon major Kessler
Delichon polgardiensis Kessler
Delichon pusillus Kessler

Hirundinidae gen. & sp. ‘Langebaanweg, Südafrika’ (mehrere spp.)

Hirundo aprica Feduccia
Hirundo gracilis Kessler
Hirundo major Kessler

Riparia minor Kessler

Icteridae

Cremaster tytthus (Brodkorb)

Euphagus magnirostris
 (Miller)

Icterus sp.
 ‘Talara, Peru’

Molothrus sp.
 ‘Talara, Peru’

Pandanaris convexa
 (Miller)

Pyelorhamphus molothroides
 (Miller)

Laniidae

Lanius capeki Kessler
Lanius hungaricus Kessler
Lanius intermedius Kessler
Lanius major Kessler
Lantus schreteri Kessler & Hír

Leiotrichidae

Turdoides borealis Jánossy

Locustellidae

Locustella janossyi Kessler
Locustella kordosi Kessler
Locustella mana Kessler

Locustellidae gen. & sp.
 ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Megalurus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Maluridae

Maluridae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Meliphagidae

Meliphagidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’ (mehrere spp.)

Menuridae

Menura tyawanoides Boles

Motacillidae

Anthus antecedens Kessler & Hír
Anthus baranensis Kessler
Anthus hiri Kessler

Motacilla intermedia Kessler
Motacilla minor Kessler
Motacilla robusta Kessler

Muscicapidae

Erithacus horusitzkyi Kessler & Hír
Erithacus minor Kessler

Luscinia denesi Kessler
Luscinia pliocaenica Kessler
Luscinia praeluscinia Kessler & Hír

Monticola pongraczii Kessler

Muscicapa leganyii Kessler & Hír
Muscicapa miklosi
 Kessler
Muscicapa petenyii Kessler

Oenanthe kormosi Kessler
Oenanthe pongraczi Kessler

Phoenicurus baranensis Kessler
Phoenicurus erikai Kessler

Saxicola baranensis Kessler
Saxicola lambrechti Kessler
Saxicola magna Kessler
Saxicola parva Kessler

Neosittidae

Daphoenositta trevorworthyi Nguyen

Oriolidae

Longimornis robustirostrata Boles

Oriolus beremendensis Kessler

Orthonychidae

Orthonyx kaldowinyeri Boles

Palaeoscinidae (?)

Palaeoscinis turdirostris Howard

Paridae

Parus medius Kessler
Parus parvulus Kessler
Parus robustus Kessler

Passerellidae

Ammodramus eurius Brodkorb
Ammodramus hatcheri (Shufeldt)

Passeridae

Passer hiri Kessler
Passer minusculus Kessler
Passer pannonicus Kessler

Petroicidae

Petroicidae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australien’

Phylloscopidae

Phylloscopus miocaenicus Kessler & Hír
Phylloscopus pliocaenicus Kessler
Phylloscopus venczeli Kessler

Pomatostomidae

Pomatostomus sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Prunellidae

Prunella freudenthali Kessler
Prunella kormosi Kessler

Psittacopedidae

Eofringillirostrum boudreauxi Mayr, Ksepka & Grande
Eofringillirostrum parvulum Mayr, Ksepka & Grande

Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe

Psittacopes lepidus Mayr & Daniels

Pumiliornis tessellatus Mayr

Regulidae

Regulus bulgaricus Boev
Regulus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sittidae

Sitta gracilis Kessler
Sitta pusilla Kessler
Sitta senogalliensis Portis
Sitta villanyensis Kessler

Sturnidae

Sturnus baranensis Kessler
Sturnus brevis Kessler
Sturnus kretzoii Kessler & Hír
Sturnus pliocaenicus Kessler

Sylviidae

Sylvia intermedia Kessler
Sylvia pussila Kessler

Tichodromidae

Tichodroma apeki Kessler

Troglodytidae

Troglodytes robustus Kessler

Turdidae

Meridiocichla salotti Louchart

Turdicus minor Kessler & Hír
Turdicus pannonicus Kessler

Turdus major Kessler
Turdus medius Kessler
Turdus minor Kessler
Turdus miocaenicus Kessler
Turdus polgardiensis Kessler

Zygodactylidae

Eozygodactylus americanus Weidig

Primoscens minutus Harrison & Walker

Primozygodactylus ballmanni Mayr
Primozygodactylus danielsi Mayr
Primozygodactylus eunjooae Mayr & Zelenkov
Primozygodactylus longibrachium Mayr
Primozygodactylus major Mayr
Primozygodactylus quintus Mayr

Zygodactylus grandei Smith, DeBee & Clarke
Zygodactylus grivensis Ballmann
Zygodactylus ignotus Ballmann
Zygodactylus luberonensis Mayr
Zygodactylus ochlurus Hieronymus, Waugh & Clarke

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[1] Jeno Kessler; János Hír: The avifauna in North Hungary during the Miocene Part II. Földtani Közlöny 142(2): 149-168. 2012
[2] Nikita V. Zelenkov: The revised avian fauna of Rudabànya (Hungary, Late Miocene). Contribuciones del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturalis “Bernardino Rivadavia” 7: 253-266. 2017

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bearbeitet: 23.12.2019

Paläozän – das ‚verfluchte‘ Zeitalter

Das Paläozän, das ist die Zeitperiode die unmittelbar der Kreidezeit folgt, deren Ende durch das berühmteste Massenaussterben der Erdgeschichte gekennzeichnet ist, jenes Massenaussterben dem auch sämtliche non-avialen Dinosaurier zum Opfer fielen.

***

Nun, was wissen wir über die Vogelwelt dieser Zeitperiode? NICHTS! Nun ja, zumindest recht wenig.
Ich nenne das Paläozän ‚das verfluchte Zeitalter‘ da, wenngleich sehr wohl einige Überreste von Vögeln bekannt sind, so sind diese nahezu immer sehr fragmentarisch, sehr schlecht erhalten und oft genug nicht wirklich aussagekräftig … und, obendrein scheint es nahezu unmöglich zu sein irgendwelche Informationen über diese wenigen Reste zu finden.

Die meisten Vögel, die wir aus dieser Zeitperiode kennen waren wasserbewohnende Arten, as liegt vor allem daran, dass Überreste von Wasservögeln bessere Voraussetzungen zur Fossilisierung haben als Landvögel.

***

So, welche Arten kennen wir denn nun überhaupt? 

Hier eine kleine Aufzählung aller mir bekannten Formen, der Einfachheit halber habe ich sie in alphabetischer Reihenfolge angeordnet.:

Anseriformes (Gänsevögel)

Conflicto antarcticus
 Tambussi et al. 
Naranbulagornis khun Zelenkov
Presbyornis isoni Olson

Cariamaformes (Seriemaartige)

Gradiornis walbeckensis Mayr
Itaboravis elaphrocnemoides Mayr et al.
Paleopsilopterus itaboraiensis Alvarenga
cf. Cariamaformes gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

eine rätselhafte form aus China, Qianshanornis rapax Mayr et al., gehört wohl auch hier her

cf. Charadriformes (Regenpfeiferartige)

drei sehr rätselhafte Formen, die entlang der K/T-Grenze gelebt haben:

Graculavus augustus
 Hope
Palaeotringa littoralis Marsh
Palaeotringa vagans Marsh

Coliiformes (Mausvögel)

Tsidiiyazhi abini Ksepka et al. 

eine bislang nicht beschriebene Form, MNT-11-7952 ‚Menat, Frankreich‘, erscheint mir persönlich ebenfalls sehr mausvogelartig

Gaviiformes (Seetaucher) 

cf. Colymbiculus sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Gastornithiformes (ausgestorbene Familie)

Gastornis russelli Martin
Gastornis sp. ‚Louvois, Frankreich‘, [2016]
Gastornis sp. ‚Maret, Belgien‘

Gruiformes (Kranichvögel) 

Walbeckornis creber Mayr
Wanshuina lii Hou 
cf. Ralloidea gen. & sp. ‚Maret, Belgien‘
cf. Songziidae gen. & sp. ‚Menat, Frankreich‘

Leptosomatiformes (Kurole)

cf. Leptosomatiformes gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Lithornithiformes (ausgestorbene Familie):

Fissuravis weigelti Mayr
Lithornis celetius Houde 
Lithornithidae gen. & sp. ‚Maret, Belgien‘
Lithornithidae gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Odontopterygiformes (ausgestorbene Familie)

Pelagornithidae gen. & sp. ‚Templeuve, Frankreich‘

Phaethornithiformes (Tropikvögel)

Lithoptila abdounensis Bourdon, E. et al.
Novacaesareala hungerfordi Parris & Hope 

sowie mindestens eine bislang noch unbeschriebe Form aus Neuseeland

Phoenicopteriformes (Flamingos)

Scaniornis lundgreni Dames 

Piciformes (Spechtvögel)

Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich (?)

Procellariiformes (Röhrennasen)

Tytthostonyx glauconiticus Olson & Parris (?)

Psittaciformes (Papageienvögel)

Calcardea junnei Gingerich 
Halcyornithidae/Messelasturidae gen. & sp. ‚Menat, Frankreich‘

cf. Rheiformes (Nandus)

Diogenornis fragilis Alvarenga

Sphenisciformes (Pinguine)

Crossvallia unienwillia Tambussi et al.
Kumimanu biceae Mayr
Kupoupou stilwelli Blokland, Reid, Worthy, Tennyson, Clarke & Scofield
Muriwaimanu tuatahi Ando, Jones & Fordyce
Sequiwaimanu rosieae Mayr et al.
Waimanu manneringi Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny

Strigiformes (Eulenvögel)

Berruornis orbisantiqui Mourer-Chauviré
Ogygoptynx wetmorei Rich & Bohaska

cf. Struthioformes (Strauße)

Remiornis heberti Lemoine

Vegaviiformes (ausgestorbene Familie)

Australornis lovei Mayr & Scofield

***

Zum Schluß folgt noch der seltsamste Vogel in dieser Liste, und einer der am wenigsten bekannten.: 

Qinornis paleocenica Xue aus China scheint ein Überbleibsel der kreidezeitlichen non-Neornithes zu sein und würde damit außerhalb aller noch existierenden Vogelarten stehen, da diese durchweg zu den Neornithes gehören.

***  

Nach einigen Recherchen habe ich herausgefunden das der angebliche Flamingoverwandte Scaniornis lundgreni nur anhand von drei Knochenteilen bekannt ist, die nicht wirklich irgendeiner Vogelgruppe zugeordnet werden können und daher mittlerweile als nomen dubium gelten. 

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Referenzen:

[1] Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Estelle Bourdon: The Gastornis (Aves, Gastornithidae) from the Late Paleocene of Louvois (Marne, France). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 135(2): 327-341. 2016
[2] Jacob C. Blokland; Catherine M. Reid; Trevor H. Worthy; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Julia A. Clarke & R. Paul Scofield: Chatham Island Paleocene fossils provide insight into the palaeobiology, evolution, and diversity of early penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes). Palaeontologia Electronica 22.3.78: 1-92. 2019
[3] Gerald Mayr; Thierry Smith: New Paleocene bird from the North Sea Basin in Belgium and france. Geologica Belgica 22(1-2): 35-46. 2019
[4] Gerald Mayr; Sophie Hervet; Eric Buffetaut: On the diverse and widely ignored Paleocene avifauna of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, France): new taxonomic records and unusual soft tissue preservation. Geological Magazine 156(03): 1-13. 2019

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bearbeitet: 23.12.2019

Seltsame Kreidezeit-Füße – Teil 2: DIP-V-15105a/b

DIP-V-15105a und DIP-V-15105b sind zwei Bernsteinfossilien, einmal ein fast vollständig erhaltener Fuß und zum anderen Teile eines Flügels, bzw. dessen Federn, beide gehören ziemlich wahrscheinlich zueinander.

DIP-V-15105a/b erreichte die Größe eines Kolibris, genauer gesagt eines winzigen Kolibris.

Der Fuß (es ist der rechte Fuß) ist interessanterweise bis fast zu den Zehen befiedert, wobei sich hier sogar zwei verschiedene Federformen finden, etwas längere, offenbar bräunlich gefärbte, dicht stehende Federn auf der Fußoberseite sowie vereinzelte, winzige borstenartige Federchen auf den eigentlichen Zehen selbst. 

Dem Fußbau nach zu urteilen war dieser Vogel einem heutigen Baumläufer oder Kleiber vergleichbar, lebte also in den Wipfeln der Bäume und hielt sich bevorzugt an den größeren Ästen und den Stämmen auf wo er auf der Suche nach Insektenbeute schließlich mit dem Fuß in ausgetretenem Baumharz kleben blieb und so einen grausigen Tod fand.  

*********************  

Referenzen:

[1] Lida Xing; Ryan C. McKellar; Jingmai K. O’Connor; Ming Bai; Kuowei Tseng; Luis M. Chiappe: A fully feathered enantiornithine foot and wing fragment preserved in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Scientific Reports 9(129): 1-9. 2019

Rekonstruktion des Fußes; ich habe die Federn in der vermutlichen Originalfarbe wiedergegeben
Rekonstruktion des gesamten Vogels; hier wohlgemerkt in etwa in Lebensgröße – Gummibärchen zum Größenvergleich
meine letzte Rekonstruktion; wenn die Proportionen stimmen erreichte dieses ‚Ding‘ die gigantische Größe von 4 cm, VIER ZENTIMETER!!!

leider habe ich gerade kein Gummibärchen zur Hand ….

*********************  

bearbeitet: 13.07.2019; 13.12.2019; 15.12.2019

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Anseriformes

Family incertae sedis

Conflicto antarcticus Tambussi et al.

Eoneornis australis Ameghino

Eutelornis patagonicus Ameghino

Kookne yeutensis Novas et. al. (?)

Naranbulagornis khun Zelenkov

„Oxyura“ doksana Mlíkovský

Palaeopapia eous Harrison & Walker
Palaeopapia hamstaeadiensis Harrison & Walker

Paracygnopterus scotti Harrison & Walker

Paranyroca magna Miller & Compton

Petropluvialis simplex Harrison & Walker

Anatidae

Afrocygnus chauvireae Louchart, Vignaud, Likius, Mackaye & Brunet

Aix praeclara Zelenkoy & Kurochkin

Aldabranas cabri Harrison & Walker

Aminornis excavatus Ameghino

Anabernicula gracilenta Ross
Anabernicula oregonensis Howard

Anas amotape Campbell
Anas apscheronica Burchak-Abramovich
Anas basaltica Bayer
Anas crassa Milne-Edwards
Anas isarensis Lambrecht
Anas itchtucknee McCoy
Anas kurochkini Zelenkov & Panteleyev
Anas luederitzensis Lambrecht
Anas macroptera Milne-Edwards
Anas meyeri Milne-Edwards
Anas pachyscelus Wetmore
Anas risgoviensis von Ammon
Anas robusta Milne-Edwards
Anas sanctaehelenae Campbell
Anas schneideri Emslie
Anas skalicensis Bayer
Anas soporata Kurochkin
Anas talarae Campbell

Ankonetta larriestrai Cenizo & Agnolín

Anser arenosus Bickart
Anser arizonae Bickart
Anser atavus Fraas
Anser azerbaidzhanicus Serebrovskii
Anser cygniformis Fraas
Anser devjatkini Kuročkin
Anser eldaricus Burchak-Abramovich & Gadzyev
Anser oeningensis (Meyer)
Anser pratensis (Short)
Anser pressus (Brodkorb)
Anser tchikoicus Kuročkin
Anser thompsoni Martin & Mengel
Anser thraceiensis Burchak-Abramovich & Nikolov

Anserobranta robusta (Milne-Edwards)
Anserobranta tarabukinii (Kurochkin & Ganea)

Archaeocycnus lacustris De Vis

Australotadorna alecwilsoni Worthy

Aythya denesi (Kessler)

Branta dickeyi Miller
Branta esmeralda (Burt)
Branta howardae Miller
Branta hypsibata (Cope)
Branta propinqua Shufeldt
Branta thessaliensis Boev & Koufos
Branta woolfendeni Bickart

Cayaoa bruneti Tonni

Chendytes milleri Howard

Chenoanas asiatica Zelenkov et al.
Chenoanas deserta Zelenkov
Chenoanas sansaniensis (Milne-Edwards)

Chenopis nanus De Vis

Cygnavus formosus Kurochkin
Cygnavus senckenbergi Lambrecht

Cygnopterus affinis (Van Beneden)

Cygnus atavus (Fraas)
Cygnus csakvarensis Lambrecht
Cygnus equitum Bate
Cygnus falconeri Parker
Cygnus hibbardi Brodkorb
Cygnus lacustris (De Vis)
Cygnus liskunae (Kuročkin)
Cygnus mariae Bickart
Cygnus paloregonus Cope
Cygnus pristinus Kurochkin
Cygnus sp. ‘Dursunlu, Turkey’
Cygnus verae Boev

Dendrochen robusta Miller

Dunstanetta johnstoneorum Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Eonessa anaticula Wetmore

Eremochen russelli Brodkorb

Garganornis ballmanni H. J. M. Meyer

Guguschia nailiae Aslanova & Burczak-Abramovicz

Loxornis clivus Ameghino

Manuherikia douglasi Worthy, Tennyson, Hand & Scofield
Manuherikia lacustrina Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas
Manuherikia minuta Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Matanas enrighti Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Megalodytes morejohni Howard

Mergellus mochanovi Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Mionetta blanchardi (Milne-Edwards)
Mionetta consobrina (Milne-Edwards)
Mionetta eversa (Wetmore)
Mionetta natator (Milne-Edwards)

Miotadorna sanctibathansi Worthy, Tennyson, Jones, McNamara & Douglas

Nettapus anatoides Depéret

Nogusunna conflictoides Zelenkov

Oxyura bessomi Howard
Oxyura hulberti Emslie
Oxyura zapatanima Alvarez

Pinpanetta fromensis Worthy
Pinpanetta tedfordi Worthy
Pinpanetta vickersrichae Worthy

Protomelanitta bakeri Stidham & Zelenkov
Protomelanitta gracilis Zelenkov

Romainvillia kazakhstanensis Zelenkov
Romainvillia stehlini
 Ledebinsky

Saintandrea chenoides Mayr & De Pietri

Sharganetta mongolica Zelenkov

Sinanas diatomas Yeh

Telornis impressus Ameghino

Tirarinetta kanuka Worthy

Anhimidae

Chaunoides antiquus Alvarenga

Anseranatidae

Anatalavix oxfordi Olson
Anatalavis rex (Shufeldt)

Anserpica kiliani Mourer-Chauviré

Eoanseranas handae Worthy & Scanlon

Brontornithidae

Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat

Presbyornithidae

Haedonornis hantoniensis Harrison & Walker

Presbyornis isoni Olson
Presbyornis mongoliensis Kurochkin & Dyke
Presbyornis pervetus Wetmore
Presbyornis recurvirostrus Hardy

Telmabates antiquus Howard
Telmabates howardae Cracraft

Teviornis gobiensis Kurochkin et al.

Wilaru prideauxi De Pietri et al.
Wilaru tedfordi Boles et al.

Zhylgaia aestiflua Nessov

*********************

bearbeitet: 15.12.2019

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Charadriiformes

Family incertae sedis

Becassius charadriioides De Pietri & Mayr

Cherevychnavis umanskae Bochenski, Wertz, Tomek, & Gorobets

Chionoides australiensis De Pietri et al.

Elorius limosoides De Pietri & Mayr
Elorius paludicola Milne-Edwards

Hakawai melvillei De Pietri, Scofiled, Tennyson, Hand & Worthy

Jiliniornis huadianensis Hou & Ericson

Neilus sansomae De Pietri et al.

Palintropus retusus (Marsh)

Parvelorius calidris De Pietri & Mayr
Parvelorius gracilis (Milne-Edwards)

Scandiavis mikkelseni Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Mayr

Scolopacimilis lartetianus (Milne-Edwards)
Scolopacimilis sp. ‚Saint-Gerand-le-Puy, Frankreich‘

Sternalara milneedwardsi De Pietri et al.
Sternalara minuta De Pietri et al.

“Totanus” teruelensis Villata

Vanolimicola longihallucis Mayr

Alcidae/Pan-Alcidae

Aethia barnesi Smith
Aethia rossmoori Howard
Aethia storei Smith

Alca ausonia Portis
Alca carolinensis Smith & Clarke
Alca grandis Brodkorb
Alca minor Smith & Clarke
Alca olsoni Smith & Clarke
Alca stewarti Martin et al.

Alcodes ulnulus Howard

Brachyramphus dunkeli Chandler
Brachyramphus pliocenum Howard

Cepphus olsoni Howard

Cerorhinca dubia Miller
Cerorhinca minor Howard
Cerorhinca reai Chandler

Divisulcus demerei Smith

Fratercula dowi Guthrie et al.

Hydrotherikornis oregonus Miller

Mancalla californiensis Lucas
Mancalla cedrosensis Howard
“Mancalla” diegensis Miller
“Mancalla” emlongi Olson
Mancalla lucasi Smith
“Mancalla” milleri Howard
Mancalla vegrandis Smith

Miocepphus blowi Wijnker & Olson
Miocepphus bohaskai Wijnker & Olson
Miocepphus mcclungi Wetmore
Miocepphus mergulellus Wijnker & Olson

Miomancalla howardi (Smith)
Miomancalla wetmorei (Howard)

Praemancalla lagunensis Howard

Pseudocepphus teres Wijnker & Olson

Synthliboramphus rineyi Chandler

Uria affinis Marsh
Uria brodkorbi Howard
Uria paleohesperis Howard
Uria troile Lydekker

Burhinidae

Burhinus lucorum Bickart

Genucrassum bransatensis De Pietri & Scofield

Charadriidae

Charadrius lambrechti Kessler

Vanellus liffyae De Pietri, Scofield, Prideaux & Worthy

Cimolopterygidae (?)

Ceramornis major Brodkorb

Cimolopteryx maxima Brodkorb
Cimolopteryx rara Marsh

Lamarqueavis australis Agnolin
Lamarqueavis minima (Brodkorb)
Lamarqueavis petra (Hope)

Glareolidae

Becassius charadriioides De Pietri, Mayr & Scofield

Boutersemia belgica Mayr & Smith
Boutersemia parvula Mayr & Smith

“Gallinago” veterior Jánossy

Glareola neogena Ballmann

Mioglareola dolnicensis (Švec)
Mioglareola gregaria Ballmann

Paractiornis perpusillus Wetmore

Pinguinus alfrednewtoni Olson

Graculavidae (?)

Dakotornis cooperi Erickson

Graculavus augustus Hope
Graculavus velox (Marsh)

Palaeotringa littoralis Marsh
Palaeotringa vagans Marsh

Scaniornis lundgreni Dames

Telmatornis priscus Marsh

Zhylgaia aestiflua Nesov

Haematopodidae

Haematopus sulcatus (Brodkorb)

Jacanidae

Jacana farrandi Olson

Janipes nymphaeobates Rasmussen et al.

Nupharanassa bulotorum Rasmussen et al.
Nupharanassa tolutaria Rasmussen et al.

Laornithidae (?)

Laornis edvardsianus Marsh

Laricolidae

Laricola desnoyersii (Milne-Edwards)
Laricola elegans (Milne-Edwards)
Laricola intermedia De Pietri et al.
Laricola robusta De Pietri et al.
Laricola totanoides (Milne-Edwards)

Laridae

Larus dolnicensis Švec
Larus elmorei Brodkorb
Larus lacus Emslie
Larus perpetuus Emslie
Larus pristinus Shufeldt
Larus oregonus Shufeldt
Larus robustus Shufeldt

Pedionomidae

Oligonomus milleri De Pietri, Camens & Worthy

Recurvirostridae

Fluviatilavis antunesi Harrison

Himantopus brevipes Milne-Edwards

Rostratulidae

Rostratula minator Olson & Eller

Scolopacidae

Bartramia umatilla Brodkorb

Calidris binagadensis Serebrovsky
Calidris janossyi Kessler
Calidris pacis Brodkorb

Erolia penepusilla Brodkorb

Ereunetes rayi Brodkorb

Gallinago veterior Jánossy

Micropalama chapmani Campbell
Micropalama hesternus Wetmore

Scolopax baranensis Jánossy
Scolopax carmesinae Seguí

Stercorariidae

Stercorarius shufeldti Howard

Thinocoridae

Thinocorus koepckae Campbell

Turnipacidae

Cerestenia pulchrapenna Mayr

Turnipax dissipata Mayr
Turnipax oechslerorum Mayr & Knopf

*********************

bearbeitet: 15.12.2019

Seltsame Kreidezeit-Füße – Teil 4: YLSNHM01001

YLSNHM01001 ist ein winziges Bernsteinfossil (ca. 2,5 x 1,8 cm), das Teile eines Vogelfußes bzw. Reste der Haut die diesen Fuß einst umgab, inklusive einer der Fußkrallen sowie Teile der Schwanzfedern umfasst.

Trotz der schlechten Erhaltung steht fest, dass es sich hierbei um einen enantiornithiden Vogel handelt sowie ebenfalls um eine bislang unbekannte Art.

Der Fuß (inklusive der Krallen) hat eine Länge von ca. 1,5 cm. Der vierte Zeh des Fußes ist in seinem Umfang etwa doppelt so groß wie die übrigen Zehen, so weit diese zu erkennen sind. Er erscheint auffällig geschwollen, und eventuell litt dieser Vogel an einer Infektion dieses Zehs. Es ist aber auch möglich, dass es sich hierbei um Verwesungsspuren handelt, worauf auch zahlreiche warzenartig aussehende Blasen hindeuten, die sich entlang der erhaltenen Hautpartien erkennen lassen.

Der Gesamtbau des Fußes lässt darauf schließen, dass YLSNHM01001 ein kleiner insektenfangender Miniaturraubvogel gewesen sein dürfte. [1]

*********************

Referenzen: 

[1] Lida Xing; Ryan C. McKellar; Jingmai K. O’Connor; Kecheng Niu: A mid-Cretaceous enantiornithine foot and tail feather preserved in amber. Scientific Reports 9 (1): 1–8. 2019

YLSNHM01001
Rekonstruktion des Fußes; links: linker Fuß von der linken Körperseite betrachtet, rechts: rechter Fuß von oben betrachtet
Rekonstruktion des gesamten Vogels; er erreicht hier eine Gesamtlänge von ca 22 cm, ist also gar nicht so winzig wie ich ursprünglich gedacht hatte

an den Füßen und den Schwanzfedern muss ich noch mal arbeiten …

*********************

bearbeitet: 13.12.2019

SDSM 64281

SDSM 64281, also known as „Ornithurine C“ is mentioned in a study from 2011 that deals with the extinction of several bird clades at the end of the Cretaceous. [1]

This form is apparently known from at least one fragmented coracoid and comes from a bird that in life must have had a weight of about 3 kg. Unfortunatley the study fails to inform if this form is known from only the aforementioned single coracoid, and if not, if its remains were recovered only from the earliest Paleocene layers or if they were also recovered from the lates Cretaceous layers as it is the case with all other bird remains in the study.:

One of these species, Ornithurine C, is [also or only?] known from the Paleocene and therefore represents the only Maastrichtian bird known to cross the K–Pg boundary.“ 

***

Apparently, this species is known from at least four coracoids or remains of such, and they are named as  „SDSM 64281A“, „SDSM 64281B“, „UCMP 175251“, and  „MOR 2918“ and most are indeed of Late Cretaceous age, but just not all of them.

According to the authors this species might be identical with a species that was named as Graculavus augustus Hope, a bird that apparently belongs to the Charadriiformes but was very much unlike any of the charadriiform birds living today, in life it may have appeared like some kind of giant stone-curlew aka. thick-knee. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Nicholas R. Longrich; Tim Tokaryk; Daniel J. Field: Mass extinction of birds at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. PNAS 108 (37) 15253-15257. 2011 
[2] Nicholas R. Longrich; Tim Tokaryk; Daniel J. Field: Mass extinction of birds at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. PNAS 108 (37) 15253-15257. 2011. Supplementary Information

*********************

edited: 09.12.2019

Fossil record of the Accipitriformes

Accipitridae

Anchigyps voorhiesi Zhang, Feduccia & James

Apatosagittarius terrenus Feduccia & Voorhies

Garganoaetus freudenthali Ballmann
Garganoaetus murivorus Ballmann

Gyps bochenskii Boev
Gyps melitensis Lydekker

Neogyps errans Miller

Neophrontops americanus Miller
Neophrontops slaughteri Feduccia
Neophrontops vallecitoensis Howard
Neophrontops vetustus Wetmore

Horusornithidae

Horusornis vianeyliaudae Mourer-Chauviré

Pandionidae

Pandion homalopteron Warter
Pandion lovensis Becker
Pandion pannonicus Kessler

Pandionidae gen. & sp. ‚Bad Münster am Stein, Germany‘

Sagittariidae

Amanuensis pickfordi Mourer-Chauviré

Pelargopappus magnus Milne-Edwards

*********************

edited: 09.12.2019

Fossil record of the Opisthocomiformes

Opisthocomidae

Hoazinavis lacustris Mayr et al.

Hoazinoides magdalenae Miller

Namibiavis senutae Mourer-Chauviré

Protoazin parisiensis Mayr & De Pietri

*********************

edited: 09.12.2019

Fossil record of the Eoenantiornithiformes

Family incertae sedis 

Cruralispennia multidonta Wang, O’Connor, Pan & Zhou

Eocathyornis walkeri Zhou

Eoenantiornis buhleri Hou, Zhou & Feduccia

Fortunguavis xiaotaizicus Wang, O’Connor & Zhou

Bohaiornithidae

Bohaiornis guoi Hu, Li, Hou & Xu 

Parabohaiornis martini Wang, Zhou, O’Connor & Zelenkov

Longusunguis kurochkini Wang, Zhou, O’Connor & Zelenkov

Shenqiornis mengi Wang, O’Connor, Zhao, Chiappe, Gao & Cheng

Sulcavis geeorum O’Connor, Zhang, Chiappe, Meng, Quanguo & Di

Zhouornis hani Zhang, Chiappe, Han & Chinsamy

Cathayornithidae

Cathayornis yandica Zhou, Jin & Zhang

Houornis caudatus (Hou)

Noguerornis gonzalezi Lasaca-Ruiz

Sinornis santensis Sereno & Rao (?)

Vascornis hebeiensis Zhang, Ericson & Zhou

Longipterygidae

Bolouchia zhengi Zhou 

Longipteryx chaoyangensis Zhang, Zhou, Hou & Gu 

Longirostravis hani Hou, Chiappe, Zhang, Chuong

Rapaxavis pani Morschhauser, Varricchio, Gao, Liu, Wang, Cheng & Meng

Shanweiniao cooperorum O’Connor, Gao & Chiappe 

Shengjingornis yangi  Li, Wang, Zhang & Hou

*********************

edited: 07.12.2019

FMNH PA789

This is a small bird from the Eocene of Wyoming, USA, it was only about 10 cm long and is so far known from a complete skeleton with most of the feathers preserved as well.

The bird is not yet described but is apparently currently under study, it may turn out to be related to Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe, and to belong into a new family, probably named the Morsorornithidae or alike, which then again are perhaps somehow related to the mousebird/parrot/songbird ‘orbit’.

The reconstruction shows it while somewhat stretching its left wing, it was ‘fun’ to draw all this wing feathers, and I probably will do that NEVER EVER AGAIN!!!   😉

*********************

*********************

A little update here:

This bird is now apparently included into the genus Morsoravis. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Lance Grande: The Lost World of Fossil Lake: Snapshots from Deep Time. University of Chicago Press 2013
[2] Daniel T. Ksepka; Lance Grande; Gerald Mayr: Oldest finch-beaked birds reveal parallel ecological radiations in the earliest evolution of passerines. Current Evolution 29(4): 657-663. 2019

*********************

edited: 23.01.2018; 07.12.2019

Fossil record of the Avisauriformes (?)

Avisauridae

Avisaurus archibaldi Brett-Surman & Paul

Bauxitornis mindszentyae Dyke & Ősi

Concornis lacustris Sanz & Buscalioni

Enantiophoenix electrophyla Cau & Arduini

Gettya gloriae (Varrichio and Chiappe)

Halimornis thompsoni Chiappe, Lamb & Ericson

Intiornis inexpectatus Novas et al.

Mirarce eatoni Atterholt et al.

Neuquenornis volans Chiappe & Calvo

Soroavisaurus australis Chiappe

*********************

edited: 06.12.2019

***

Note that this order may not be valid.

Fossil record of the Pengornithiformes (?)

Pengornithidae

Chiappeavis magnapremaxillo O’Connor et al.

Eopengornis martini Wang et al.

Parapengornis eurycaudatus Hu et. al.

Pengornis houi Zhou, Clarke, & Zhang

*********************

edited: 04.12.2019

***

Note that this order may not be valid.

A very snappy bird with strange trousers – Cruralispennia multidonta Wang et al.

This tiny thing could be called the „Cretaceous Nicobar Pigeon“, it had somewhat elongated neck feathers, the typical short tail, or rather a not-a-tail-at-all tail so typical for many of those strange Cretaceous enantiornithine birds that we now already know.

The strange-feathered creature comes from China, where it lived some 130 Million years ago in the late Early Cretaceous.

The genus name refers to its crural feathers (bird trousers) which are actually found in many birds, but here they are shaped like nothing ever seen before, maybe like a thin sheet of ceratin with a chewed end, or brush-like end, not at all like a feather. The species name again refers to its multi-toothed beak.

*********************

a sketch of which I hope that I can produce a painting from some day ….

The bird reached a size of about 10 to maybe 11 or 12 cm when fully grown. The body feathers appear to have been more hair- than feather-like, and they may have been dark, while those on its neck were somewhat elongated and apparently were even glossy [1] … why not. 

***

Unfortunatly I could not find any plant species from the same place and time.

*********************

References:

[1] Min Wang; Jingmai K. O’Connor; Yanhong Pan; Zhonghe Zhou: A bizarre Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird with unique crural feathers and an ornithuromorph plough-shaped pygostyle. Nature Communications 8: 1-12. 2017

*********************

edited: 22.01.2019; 22.03.2019; 19.11.2019

Fossil record of the Casuariiformes

Casuariidae

Casuarius lydekkeri Rothschild

Dromaius arleyekweke Yates & Worthy

Emuarius gidju (Patterson & Rich)

Hypselornis sivalensis Lydekker (?)

*********************

edited: 17.03.2019; 18.11.2019

A kingfisher-like bird from Messel – Quasisyndactylus longibrachis Mayr

This tiny bird is thought to be the ancestor of the kingfishers or of the todies, or of both.

Quasisyndactylus longibrachis was very small, only about 10 cm long, its legs were quite long, very much like in today’s todies (Todidae) and its feet were syndactyl (that means two of the toes, toes 3 and 4, are fused together), like those of all known Coraciiformes showing that it was a member of that order.

The species is known from several specimens, some of which also still harbor their feathering, showing that this species had rather roundish wings and a rather long tail.

*********************

References:

[1] G. Mayr: „Coraciiforme“ und „piciforme“ Kleinvögel aus dem Mittel-Eozän der Grube Messel (Hessen, Deutschland). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Band 205. 1998

*********************

Photo: Ghedoghedo

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

*********************

my reconstruction, following a specimen with well preserved feathers; it’s only a sketch so far

*********************

edited: 05.11.2019; 06.11.2019

Fossil record of the Suliformes

Anhingidae

Anhinga beckeri Emslie
Anhinga fraileyi Campbell
Anhinga hadarensis Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Anhinga pannonica Lambrecht
Anhinga subvolans (Brodkorb)
Anhinga walterbolesi Worthy

Macranhinga paranensis Noriega

Meganhinga chilensis Alvarenga

Fregatidae

Limnofregata azygosternon Olson
Limnofregata hasegawai Olson & Matsuoka
Limnofregata hutchisoni Stidham

Phalacrocoracidae

Borvocarbo guilloti Mourer-Chauviré
Borvocarbo stoeffelensis Mayr
Borvocarbo tardatus Gohlich & Mourer-Cauviré

Limicorallus saiensis Kurochkin

Oligocorax littoralis Lambrecht
Oligocorax miocaenus Milne-Edwards

Paracorax destefanii Regalia

Phalacrocorax anatolicus Paicheler et al. 
Phalacrocorax chapalensis Alvarez
Phalacrocorax femoralis Miller
Phalacrocorax filyawi Emslie
Phalacrocorax goletensis Howard
Phalacrocorax idahensis Marsh
Phalacrocorax intermedius Milne-Edwards
Phalacrocorax kennelli Howard
Phalacrocorax leptopus Brodkorb
Phalacrocorax longipes Tugarinov
Phalacrocorax macer Brodkorb
Phalacrocorax macropus Cope
Phalacrocorax marinavis Shufeldt
Phalacrocorax mediterraneus Shufeldt
Phalacrocorax mongoliensis Kurochkin
Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae Forbes
Phalacrocorax praecarbo von Ammon
Phalacrocorax reliquus Kurochkin
Phalacrocorax risgoviensis Fraas
Phalacrocorax rogersi Howard
Phalacrocorax wetmorei Brodkorb

Piscator tenuirostris Harrison & Walker

Stictocarbo kumeyaay Chandler

Plotopteridae

Copepteryx hexeris Olson & Hasegawa
Copepteryx titan Olson & Hasegawa

Hokkaidornis abashiriensis Sakurai et al.

Klallamornis abyssa Mayr & Goedert
Klallamornis clarki Mayr & Goedert

Phocavis maritimus Goedert

Plotopterum joaquinensis Howard

Stemec suntokum Kaiser et al.

Tonsala buchanani Dyke et al.
Tonsala hildegardae Olson

Protoplotidae

Protoplotus beauforti Lambrecht

Sulidae

Bimbisula melanodactylos Benson & Erickson

Empheresula arvernensis Milne-Edwards

Eostega lebedinskyi Lambrecht

Masillastega rectirostris Mayr

Microsula pygmaea Milne-Edwards

Miosula media Miller

Morus atlanticus Shufeldt
Morus avitus Wetmore
Morus humeralis Miller & Bowman
Morus lompocanus Miller
Morus loxostylus Cope
Morus magnus Howard
Morus peninsularis Brodkorb
Morus peruvianus Stucchi
Morus recentior Howard
Morus reyana Howard
Morus vagabundus Wetmore

Paleosula stocktoni Miller

Prophalacrocorax ronzoni Gervais

Ramphastosula aguierrei Stucchi et al.
Ramphastosula ramirezi Stucchi & Urbina

Sarmatosula dobrogensis Grigorescu & Kessler

Sula arvernensis Milne-Edwards
Sula brandi Stucchi et al.
Sula clarki Chandler
Sula figueroae Stucchi et al.
Sula guano Brodkorb
Sula magna Stucchi
Sula phosphata Brodkorb
Sula pohli Howard
Sula sulita Stucchi
Sula universitatis Brodkorb
Sula willetti Miller

*********************

edited: 16.08.2019

Winnicavis gorskii Bocheński, Tomek, Wertz, Happ, Bujoczek & Świdnicka

This is the “newest” of the European Oligocene birds with “brittly limbs”, this time only the wingbones are preserved. These are unlike the wingbones of any other passerine bird known so far, extant or extinct.

The bird was small, about the size of a Great Tit (Parus major L.), I will see if I am able to make some kind of reconstruction, whatsoever. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Zbigniew M. Bocheński, Teresa Tomek, Krzysztof Wertz, Johannes Happ, Małgorzata Bujoczek & Ewa Świdnicka: Articulated avian remains from the early Oligocene of Poland adds to our understanding of Passerine evolution. Palaeontologia Electronica 21(2). 2018

*********************

Let’s have a little update here.

I’ve made a little sketch, based on a Great Tit, however, knowing that this bird was not related to any of the modern Passeriformes, I thought of a little songbird-like creature resembling some of the Australian/Papuan “primitive” songbirds.

*********************

my reconstruction, the bird reached a size of about 15 cm or in other words was indeed about the size of a Great Tit; remember, only the wing bones and some impressions of several wing feathers are known

*********************

edited: 24.09.2018; 14.08.2019

ZPALWr. A/4003

We spoke about Oligocene birds with brittly legs before … this one is a small fossil, a slab and its counter slab of course containing a single foot, a ca. 3,6 cm long right foot only retaining the first and the second toe.

This partial foot was compared to many other bird forms and it was found that it most closely resembled the foot of columbiform birds, that is pigeons and doves.

If this indeed was a columbiform bird it is now the oldest known of its kind – since true pigeons and doves actually apear in the fossil record quite late, with the oldest remains coming from the Miocene era respectively from the border of the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene.

However, ZPALWr. A/4003, being only a partial foot, is not enough to fully constitute its taxonomic affinities. [1]

***

Assuming that this fossil indeed is of a true a pigeon, it must have reached a life size of about 25 cm.

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References:

[1] Zbigniew M. Bocheński; Teresa Tomek; Ewa Świdnicka: A columbid-like avian foot from the Oligocene of Poland. Acta Ornithologica 45(2): 233-236. 2010

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edited: 11.08.2019

Fossil record of the Psittaciformes

Cacatuidae

Cacatua sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Halcyornithidae

Cyrilavis colburnorum Ksepka et al.
Cyrilavis olsoni Feduccia & Martin

Halcyornis toliapicus König

Pseudasturides macrocephalus (Mayr)

Pulchrapollia gracilis (Dyke & Cooper)

Serudaptus pohli Mayr

Messelasturidae

Messelastur gratulator Peters

Tynskya eocaena Mayr

Nestoridae

Heracles inexpectatus Worthy, Hand, Archer, Scofield & De Pietri

Nelepsittacus daphneleeae Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus donmertoni Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus minimus Worthy et al.
Nelepsittacus (?) sp. ‘Croc Site Layer, New Zealand’

Psittacidae

Agapornis atlanticus Mourer-Chauviré
Agapornis attenboroughi
 Manegold
Agapornis sp.
 ‘Kromdraai B, South Africa’
Agapornis sp. ‘Plovers Lake, South Africa’

Aratinga roosevelti Spillman

Archaeopsittacus verreauxi Milne-Edwards

Bavaripsitta ballmanni Mayr & Göhlich

Conuropsis fratercula Wetmore

Khwenena leopoldinae Manegold

Melopsittacus undulatus (ssp. ‘Pliocene’ ?)

Mogontiacopsitta miocaena Mayr

Namapsitta praeruptorum Mourer-Chauviré et al.

Nandayus vorohuensis Tonni & Noriega

Psittacidae gen. & sp. ‘Baikal Lake, Russia’

Xenopsitta feifari Mlíkovsky

Quercypsittidae

Quercypsitta ivani Mourer-Chauviré
Quercypsitta sp. ‘Walton-on-the-Naze, Great Britain’
Quercypsitta sudrei Mourer-Chauviré

Vastanavidae (?)

Vastanavis cambayensis Mayr et al.
Vastanavis eocaena Mayr et al.

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edited: 07.08.2019

Perplexicervix microcephalon Mayr

This species was described in 2010, it is known from five or six specimens found in the Messel shale, five of which include cervical vertebrae which again all bear strange small tubercles unknown in any other bird dead or alive.

The bird may or may not be related to the so-called screamers (Anhimidae), it had a quite small head compared to its body and had very large and strong wing bones, thus apparently was good at flying, its feet have short toes which appear to have been somewhat flattened – and my gut feeling tells me that they may have had been webbed ….

*********************

a humble reconstruction, note that I forgot to draw the halluces (big toes) onto the feet

Fossil record of the Cariamiformes

Family incertae sedis

Elaphrocnemus brodkorbi Milne-Edwards
Elaphrocnemus crex
 Milne-Edwards
Elaphrocnemus phasianus Milne-Edwards

Gradiornis walbeckensis Mayr

Itaboravis elaphrocnemoides Mayr et al.

Lavocatavis africana Mourer-Chauviré et al.

Ameghinornithae

Ameghinornis minor Gaillard

Ameghinornithidae gen. & sp. ‘Jebel Qatrani Formation, Egypt’
Ameghinornithidae gen. & sp. ‘Nei Mongol, China’

Strigogyps dubius Gaillard
Strigogyps robustus (Lambrecht)
Strigogyps sapea (Peters)
Strigogyps sp. ‘Eckfelder Maar, Germany’

Bathornithidae

Bathornis celeripes Wetmore
Bathornis cursor Wetmore
Bathornis fricki Ostrom
Bathornis geographicus Wetmore
Bathornis grallator Olson
Bathornis veredus Wetmore

Eutreptornis uintae (Cracraft)

Paracrax antiqua Shufeldt
Paracrax gigantea Cracraft
Paracrax wetmorei Cracraft

Cariamidae

Cariama santacrucensis Noriega et al.

Cariamidae gen. & sp. ‘Alto Río Bandurrias, Chile’

Chunga incertis (Tonni)

Noriegavis santacrucensis (Noriega et al.)

Riacama caliginea Ameghino

Idiornithidae

Gypsornis cuvieri Milne-Edwards

Idiornis gaillardi Cracraft

Oblitavis insolitus Mourer-Chauviré

Occitaniavis elatus (Milne-Edwards)

Propelargus cayluxensis Lydekker
Propelargus edwardsi Lydekker
Propelargus olseni Brodkorb

Phorusrhacidae

Andalgalornis steulleti (Kraglievich)

Andrewsornis abbotti Patterson

Devincenzia pozzii (Kraglievich)

Eleutherornis cotei Gaillard

Hermosiornis australis Moreno

Kelenken guillermoi Bertelli, Chiappe & Tambussi

Llallawavis scagliai Degrange et al.

Mesembriornis incertus Rovereto
Mesembriornis milneedwardsi Moreno

Paleopsilopterus itaboraiensis Alvarenga

Paraphysornis brasiliensis (Alvarenga)

Patagornis marshi Moreno & Mercerat

Phorusrhacos longissimus Ameghino

Physornis fortis Ameghino

Procariama simplex Rovereto

Psilopterus bachmanni (Moreno & Mercerat)
Psilopterus lemoinei (Moreno & Mercerat)
Psilopterus affinis (Ameghino)
Psilopterus colzecus Tonni & Tambussi

Titanis walleri Brodkorb

Salmilidae

Salmila robusta Mayr
Salmilidae gen. & sp. `Green River Formation, USA`

*********************

edited: 11.03.2019; 05.08.2019

Vanolimicola longihallucis Mayr

This species was described in 2017, it is one of the many birds from the Messel shale, that are somehow related to living ones but on the other hand again … are completely different.  

This one is thought to be related to the Charadriiformes, and it may indeed have been a member of the jacana family (Jacanidae).   

*********************

my reconstruction sketch, which turns out very much jacana-unlike

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BTW: I only recently learned that the age of the Messel shale spans from the upper Early – to the lower Middle Eocene.  

So not every bird from there is from the Middle Eocene.

*********************

edited:

04.08.2019

Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich

This enigmatic bird from the Late Paleocene of Brazil is known only from a single, broken tarsometatarsus, which, however, apparently can be assigned to the cuckoos.

I cannot say that much about this bird, it appears to have been quite large for a Paleocene bird species, and it may indeed have been a real cuckoo or it may have been something completely different.

***

A little (long overdue) update … since this species is now thought to be closely related to – or even included within the family Gracilitarsidae.

The bird in my reconstruction still is about 15 cm long, about one third larger than Gracilitarsus mirabilis Mayr, the sole known species of its genus.

reconstruction

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edited: 28.07.2019

MNT-11-7952

MNT-11-7952 is a remarkable fossil of an enigmatic bird with an exceptional preservation; imprints of the tail feathers preserved showing a bluish gray hue, the legs and feet still showing traces of their soft tissue.

This, however, is all that’s known so far, the two slabs contain nothing but the arse, sorry, the rump, the legs and the tail feathers.

The feathers are very long and narrow, reminding on the tail feathers of recent mousebirds (Coliiformes), yet the feet appear to be anisodactyl, unlike in any known mousebird, extinct or extant.

sketch of the whole fossil (I missed some of the feathers around the knee of the left leg)
sketch of the left leg

The fossil dates to the Middle Paleocene, thus has an age of 60 to 61 Millions of years, and in my opinion, my indeed be a Coliiform bird.

I’ll try to reconstruct this as much as possible. 🙂

*********************

how this bird may have looked like, almost like a modern mousebird, yet with proportionally somewhat shorter tail feathers

Here is now a little sketchy try to reconstruct that bird, including its nearly 20 cm long tail feathers, it may have reached a total length of about 34 cm, which is very well within the size range of modern mousebirds!

*********************

References:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Sophie Hervet; Eric Buffetaut: On the diverse and widely ignored Paleocene avifauna of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, France): new taxonomic records and unusual soft tissue preservation. Geological Magazine: 1-13. 2018

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edited: 07.03.2019; 24.07.2019

Fossil record of the Leptosomiformes

Leptosomidae

Plesiocathartes europaeus Gaillard
Plesiocathartes geiselensis Mayr
Plesiocathartes kelleri Mayr
Plesiocathartes major Weidig
Plesiocathartes (?) sp. ‘Egem, Belgium’
Plesiocathartes (?) sp. ‘India’
Plesiocathartes (?) sp. ‘Rivecourt-Petit Pâtis, France’
Plesiocathartes wyomingensis Weidig

*********************

edited: 24.07.2019

New Paleocene birds

There is a new paper out in which several new bird remains are described, however, unfortunately without describing any species because these remains are just too fragmentary. The remains themselves descent from the Middle Paleocene of Belgium and from the Late Paleocene of France.

There’s a very small Gastornis sp., a lithornithid, a ralloid, and a unassignable „higher landbird“ all from Belgium, and there are another lithornithid, an pelagornithid, a possible leptosomatiform and a probable cariamaform all from France.

Well, and that’s almost all.

*********************

References:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Thierry Smith: New Paleocene bird fossils from the North Sea Basin in Belgium and France. Geologica Belgica 22(1-2): 35-46. 2019

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edited: 21.07.2019

Fossil record of the Procellariiformes

Family incertae sedis

Makahala mirae Mayr

Diomedeidae

Aldiomedes angustirostris Mayr & Tennyson  

Diomedea milleri Howard
Diomedea thyridata Wilkinson

Diomedavus knapptonensis Mayr & Goedert

Murunkus subitus Panteleyev & Nessov (?)

Notoleptos giglii Acosta Hospitaleche & Gelfo

Phoebastria anglica Lydekker
Phoebastria immutabilis Rothschild
Phoebastria rexularum Olson & Rasmussen

Plotornis arvernensis (Milne-Edwards in Shufeldt)
Plotornis delfortrii Milne-Edwards
Plotornis graculoides Portis

Tydea septentrionalis Mayr & Smith

Diomedeoididae

Diomedeoides babaheydariensis Peters & Hamedani
Diomedeoides brodkorbi Cheneval

Rupelornis definitus van Beneden

Hydrobatidae

Oceanodroma hubbsi Miller

Pelecanoididae 

Pelecanoides cymatotrypetes Olson 
Pelecanoides miokuaka Worthy et al.

Procellariidae

Ardenna conradi Marsh
Ardenna davealleni Tennyson & Mannering
Ardenna gilmorei Chandler

Argyrodyptes microtarsus Ameghino

Calonectris krantzi Olson & Rasmussen
Calonectris kurodai Olson
Calonectris wingatei Olson

Eopuffinus kazachstanensis Nessov

Fulmarus hammeri Howard
Fulmarus miocaenus Howard

Hydrornis natator Milne-Edwards

Oestrelata vociferans Shufeldt

Pachyptila salax Olson

Procellaria antiqua Milne-Edwards

Pterodroma kurodai Harrison & Walker

Pterodromoides minoricensis Segui et al.

Puffinus barnesi Howard 
Puffinus calhouni Howard
Puffinus diatomicus Miller
Puffinus eyermani Shufeldt
Puffinus felthami Howard
Puffinus inceptor Wetmore
Puffinus kanakoffi Howard
Puffinus micraulax Brodkorb
Puffinus mitchelli Miller
Puffinus nestori Alcover
Puffinus parvus Shufeldt
Puffinus priscus Miller
Puffinus raemdonckii (van Beneden)
Puffinus sp. ‘Lee Creek Mine, USA 1’
Puffinus sp. ‘Lee Creek Mine, USA 2’
Puffinus tedfordi Howard

Tytthostonychidae

Tytthostonyx glauconiticus Olson & Parris

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edited: 17.07.2019

Strange feet from the Cretaceous – Part 3

Enantiophoenix electrophyla Cau & Arduini from the Late Cretaceous of Lebanon, roughly the size of a recent European Starling.

*********************

somewhat more than just a sketch, this piece took me some hours

This species is known from parts of a foot and some very few further remains.

********************

References:

[1] Andrea Cau & Paolo Arduini: Enantiophoenix electrophyla gen. et sp. nov. (Aves, Enantiornithes) from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Lebanon and its phylogenetic relationships. ATTI della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 149(2): 293-324. 2008

*********************

edited: 14.07.2019

Strange feet from the Cretaceous – Part 1

Elektorornis chenguangi Xing, O’Connor, Chiappe, McKellar, Carroll, Hu, Bai & Lei, a bird from the Cretaceous era described just now.

*********************

just a quick life-sized (!) sketch, gummy bear for size comparison

This bird is known only by a single leg with an unusually elongated middle toe and parts of the wing.

I will come back to that bird somewhat later ….

*********************

References:

[1] Lida Xing; Jingmai K. O’Connor; Luis M. Chiappe; Ryan C. McKellar; Nathan Carroll; Han Hu; Ming Bai; Fuming Lei: A new enantiornithine bird with unusual pedal proportions found in amber. Current Biology 29: 1-6. 2019

*********************

edited: 12.07.2019

Fossil record of the Podicipediformes

Podicipedidae

Aechmophorus elasson Murray

Miobaptus huzhiricus Zelenkov
Miobaptus walteri Švec

Miodytes serbicus Dimitreijevich, Gál & Kessler

Pliolymbus baryosteus Murray
Pliolymbus lanquisti Brodkorb

Podicepidae gen. & sp. ‘Truckee A’
Podicepidae gen. & sp. ‘Truckee B’

Podiceps oligocaenus (Shufeldt)
Podiceps arndti Chandler
Podiceps caspicus (Habizl)
Podiceps csarnotatus Kessler
Podiceps discors Murray
Podiceps dixi Brodkorp
Podiceps miocenicus Kessler
Podiceps oligocaenus (Shufeldt)
Podiceps parvus (Shufeldt)
Podiceps sociata (Navás) 
Podiceps solidus Kuročkin
Podiceps subparvus (Miller & Bowman)

Podilymbus mujusculus Murray
Podylimbus wetmorei Storer

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edited: 01.07.2019

Fossil record of the Hesperornithiformes

Family incertae sedis 

Chupkaornis keraorum Tanaka et al.

Judinornis nogotsavensis Nessov & Borkin

Pasquiaornis hardiei Todaryk, Cumbaa & Storer
Pasquiaornis tankei Todaryk, Cumbaa & Storer

Potamornis skutchi Elzanowski, Paul & Stidham

Baptornithidae 

Baptornis advenus Marsh

Brodavidae

Brodavis americanus Martin et al.
Brodavis baileyi Martin et al.
Brodavis mongoliensis Martin et al.
Brodavis varneri (Martin & Cordes-Person)

Enaliornithidae

Enaliornis barretti Seeley
Enaliornis sedgwicki Seeley
Enaliornis seeleyi Galton & Martin

Hesperornithidae

Asiahesperornis bazhanovi Nesov & Prizemlin

Canadaga arctica Hou

Fumicollis hoffmani Bell & Chiappe

Hesperornis altus (Marsh)
Hesperornis bairdi Martin & Lim
Hesperornis chowi Martin & Lim
Hesperornis crassipes (Marsh)
Hesperornis gracilis Marsh
Hesperornis lumgairi Aotsuka & Sato
Hesperornis macdonaldi Martin & Lim
Hesperornis mengeli Martin & Lim
Hesperornis montana Schufeldt
Hesperornis regalis Marsh
Hesperornis rossicus Nesov & Yarkov

Parahesperornis bazhanovi Nessov & Prizemlin

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edited: 30.06.2019

Fossil record of the Galliformes

Family incertae sedis

Archaealectrornis sibleyi Crowe & Short

Archaeophasianus mioceanus Lambrecht
Archaeophasianus roberti (Stone)

Argillipes aurorum Harrison & Walker
Argillipes paralectoris Harrison & Walker

Austinornis lentus Marsh

Chambiortyx cristata Mourer-Chauviré

Coturnipes cooperi Harrison & Walker

Namaortyx sperrgebietensis Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeonossax senectus Wetmore

Palaeorallus alienus Kuročkin

Sobniogallus albinojamrozi Tomek et al.

Procrax brevipes Tordoff & Macdonald

Cracidae

Boreortalis laesslei Brodkorb

Ortalis affinis Feduccia & Wilson

Gallinuloididae

Gallinuloides wyomingensis Eastman

Paraortygoides messelensis Mayr
Paraortygoides radagasti Dyke & Gulas

Megapodidae

Garrdimalga mcnamarai Shute, Prideaux & Worthy

Latagallina naracoortensis Shute, Prideaux & Worthy
Latagallina olsoni Shute, Prideaux & Worthy

Progura campestris Shute, Prideaux & Worthy
Progura gallinacea De Vis

Ngawupodius minya Boles & Ivison

Numididae

Telecrex grangeri Wetmore

Odontophoridae

Cyrtonyx tedfordi Miller

Miortyx aldeni Howard
Miortyx teres Miller

Nanortyx inexpectatus Weigel

Neortyx peninsularis Holman

Paraortygidae

Paraortyx brancoi Gaillard
Paraortyx lorteti Gaillard

Pirortyx major (Gaillard)

Scopelortyx klinghardtensis Mourer-Chauvire et al.

Taoperdix miocaena Ballman
Taoperdix pessieti Gervais

Xorazmortyx turkestanensis Zelenkov & Panteleyev

Phasianidae

Alectoris baryosefi Černov
Alectoris peii Author ?
“Alectoris” pliocaena Tugarinov

Bantamyx georgicus Kurochkin

Bonasa praebonasia (Jánossy)

Dendragapus gilli (Shufeldt)
Dendragapus lucasi Howard
Dendragapus nanus (Shufeldt)

Diangallus mious Hou

Eurobambusicola turolicus Zelenkov

“Gallus” aesculapii Jánossy
“Gallus” beremendensis Jánossy
“Gallus” europaeus Harrison
Gallus georgicus Author ?
Gallus imereticus Author ?
Gallus karabachensis Baryšnikov & Potapova
Gallus kudarensis Burčak-Abramovič & Potapova
Gallus meschtscheriensis Author ?
Gallus sp. ‘Trinka Cave, Moldovia’
Gallus sp. ‘Krivtcha Cave, Ukraine’
Gallus tamanensis Author ?

Lagopus atavus Jánossy
Lagopus balcanicus Boev
Lagopus lagopus ssp. noaillensis Mourer-Chauviré
Lagopus mutus ssp. correzensis Mourer-Chauviré

Linquornis gigantis Yeh

Lophogallus naranbulakensis Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Megalocoturnix cordoni Sánchez Marco

Meleagris altus Marsh
Meleagris californica (Miller)
Meleagris celer Marsh
Meleagris leopoldi Miller & Bowman
Meleagris richmondi Shufeldt
Meleagris tridens Wetmore

Miophasianus altus Milne-Edwards
Miophasianus desnoyersi Milne-Edwards
Miophasianus medius Milne-Edwards

Mioryaba magyarica Zelenkov

Palaeocryptonyx depereti Gaillard
Palaeocryptonyx donnezani Deperet
Palaeocryptonyx gaillardi Ennouchi
Palaeocryptonyx grivensis Ennouchi

Palaeoperdix longipes Milne-Edwards
Palaeoperdix prisca Milne-Edwards
Palaeoperdix sansaniensis Milne-Edwards

Palaeortyx blanchardi Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx brevipes Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx caluxyensis Lydekker
Palaeortyx depereti Ennouchi
Palaeortyx edwardsi Depéret
Palaeortyx gaillardi Lambrecht
Palaeortyx gallica Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx grivensis Lydekker
Palaeortyx intermedia Ballman
Palaeortyx joleaudi Ennouchi
Palaeortyx major Gaillard
Palaeortyx maxima Lydekker
Palaeortyx media Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx miocaena Gaillard
Palaeortyx ocyptera Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx phasianoides Milne-Edwards
Palaeortyx volans Gohlich & Pavia

Panraogallus hezhengensis Li et. al.

Pavo bravardi (Gervais)
Pavo moldovicus (Bocheński & Kurochkin)
Pavo sp. ‘Aramis, Ethiopia’

Pediocetes lucasi Shufeldt
Pediocetes nanus Shufeldt

Perdix palaeoperdix Mourer-Chauviré

Plioperdix hungarica Jánossy

Proagriocharis kimballensis Martin & Tate

Rhegminornis calobates Wetmore

Rustaviornis georgicus Burchak-Abramovich & Meladze

Schaubortyx keltica Eastman

Shandongornis shanwangensis Yeh
Shandongornis yinanensis Yeh

Shanxiornis fenyinis Wang et al.

Syrmaticus phasianoides (Jánossy)

Tetrao conjugens Jánossy
Tetrao macropus Jánossy
Tetrao partium (Kretzoi)
Tetrao praeurogallus Jánossy
Tetrao rhodopensis Boev

Tologuica aurorae Zelenkov & Kurochkin
Tologuica karhui Zelenkov & Kurochkin

“Tympanuchus” lulli Shufeldt
“Tympanuchus” stirtoni Miller

Quercymegapodiidae

Ameripodius alexis Mourer-Chauviré
Ameripodius silvasantosi Alvarenga

Ludiortyx hoffmanni (Gervais)

Quercymegapodius brodkorbi Mourer-Chauviré
Quercymegapodius depereti (Gaillard)

Taubacrex granivora Alvarenga

***

Note that this list is far from being complete.

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edited: 18.06.2019

Fossil record of the Otidiformes

Otididae

Chlamydotis khosatzkii Bocheński & Kurochkin – new
Chlamydotis mesetaria
 Sánchez Marco

Gryzaja odessana Zubareva

Ioriotis gabunii Burchak-Abramovich & Vekua

Miootis compactus Umanskaya

Otis affinis Lydekker
Otis bessarabicus Kessler & Gál
Otis hellenica Boev, Lazaridis & Tsoukala
Otis khozatzki ssp. beremendensis Jánossy

Pleotis liui Hou

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edited: 05.06.2019

Fossil record of the Confuciusornithiformes

Confuciusornithidae

Changchengornis hengdaoziensis Ji, Chiappe & Ji

Confuciusornis sanctus Hou et al.
Confuciusornis dui Hou et al.

Eoconfuciusornis zhengi
 Zhang, Zhou & Benton

Yangavis confucii Wang & Zhou

*********************

edited: 05.04.2019

Fossil record of the Phoenicopteriformes

Agnopteridae

Agnopterus hantoniensis Lydekker
Agnopterus laurillardi Milne-Edwards
Agnopterus turgaiensis Turgarinov

Palaelodidae

Adelalopus hoogbutseliensis Mayr & Smith

Megapaloelodus connectens Miller
Megapaloelodus goliath Milne-Edwards
Megapaloelodus opsigonus Brodkorb
Megapaloelodus peiranoi Agnolin

Palaelodus ambiguus Milne-Edwards
Palaelodus aotearoa Worthy et al.
Palaelodus crassipes Milne-Edwards
Palaelodus germanicus (Lambrecht)
Palaelodus gracilipes Milne-Edwards
Palaelodus kurochkini Zelenkov
Palaelodus minutus Milne-Edwards
Palaelodus pledgei Baird & Vickers-Rich
Palaelodus steinheimensis Fraas
Palaelodus wilsoni Baird & Vickers-Rich

Phoenicopteridae

Elornis anglicus Aymard
Elornis grandis Milne-Edwards
Elornis littoralis Milne-Edwards

Harrisonavis croizeti (Gervais)

Juncitarsus gracillimus Olson & Feduccia
Juncitarsus merkeli Peters

Leakeyornis aethiopicus (Harrison & Walker)

Phoeniconaias gracilis Miller

Phoeniconotius eyrensis Miller

Phoenicopterus copei Shufeldt
Phoenicopterus floridanus Brodkorb
Phoenicopterus minutus Howard
Phoenicopterus novaehollandiae Miller
Phoenicopterus siamensis Cheneval
Phoenicopterus stocki (Miller)

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edited: 01.04.2019

Fossil record of the Cathartiformes

Cathartidae

Aizenogyps toomeyae Emslie

Brasilogyps faustoi Alvarenga

Breagyps clarki Miller

Diatropornis ellioti (Milne-Edwards)

Coragyps occidentalis Miller

Geronogyps reliquus Campbell

Gymnogyps amplus Miller
Gymnogyps howardae Campbell
Gymnogyps kofordi Emslie
Gymnogyps varonai (Arredondo)

Hadrogyps aigialeus Emslie

Perugyps diazi Stucchi & Emslie

Phasmagyps patritus Wetmore

Pleistovultur nevesi Alvarenga et al.

Pliogyps charon Becker
Pliogyps fisheri Tordoff

Sarcoramphus fisheri Campbell

Wingegyps cartellei Alvarenga & Olson

Teratornithidae

Aiolornis incredibilis (Howard)

Argentavis magnificens Campbell & Tonni

Cathartornis gracilis Miller

Taubatornis campbelli Olson & Alvarenga

Teratornis merriami Millner
Teratornis woodburnensis Campbell & Stenger

*********************

edited: 25.03.2019

Fossil record of the Falconiformes

Falconidae

Asturaetus furcillatus De Vis

Badiostes patagonicus Ameghino

Baza gracilis De Vis

Caracara creightoni Brodkorb
Caracara latebrosus Brodkorb
Caracara major Jones, Rinderknecht, Migotto & Blanco
Caracara seymouri Suárez & Olson
Caracara sp. ‘Río Quequén Grande, Argentinia’

Falco ramenta Wetmore
Falco pisanus Portis

Foetopterus ambiguus Moreno & Mercerat

Lagopterus minutus Moreno & Mercerat

Milvago brodkorbi Campbell

Polyborus latebrosus Wetmore

Sushkinia pliocaenica Tugarinov

Taphaetus brachialis De Vis
Taphaetus lacertosus De Vis

Thegornis debilis Ameghino
Thegornis musculosus Ameghino

Masillaraptoridae (?)

Masillaraptor parvunguis Mayr

*********************

edited: 24.03.2019

Fossil record of the Yanornithiformes

Hongshanornithidae (?)

Archaeornithura meemannae Wang et al.

Hongshanornis longicresta Zhou & Zhang

Longicrusavis houi O’Connor et al.

Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis Li et al.

Tianyuornis cheni Zheng et al.

Songlingornithidae

Piscivoravis lii Zhou et al.

Songlingornis linghensis Hou

Yanornis martini Zhou & Zhang
Yanornis guozhangi Wang et al.

Yixianornis grabaui Zhou & Zhang

*********************

edited: 22.03.2019

Fossil record of the Tinamiformes

Tinamidae

Crypturellus reai Chandler

Eudromia intermedia (Rovereto)
Eudromia olsoni Tambussi & Tonni

Nothura paludosa Mercerat
Nothura parvula (Rovereto)

Querandiornis romani Rusconi

*********************

edited: 19.03.2019

Fossil record of the Lithornithiformes

Lithornithidae

Calciavis grandei Nesbitt

Fissuravis weigelti Mayr

Lithornis celetius Houde
Lithornis hookeri (Harrison)
Lithornis nasi (Harrison)
Lithornis plebius Houde
Lithornis promiscuous Houde
Lithornis vulturinus Owen

Paracathartes howardae Harrison

Pseudocrypturus cercanaxius Houde

*********************

edited: 18.03.2019

Fossil record of the Rheiformes

Opisthodactylidae

Diogenornis fragilis de Alvarenga (?)

Opisthodactylus horacioperezi Agnolin & Chafrat
Opisthodactylus kirchneri Noriega et al.
Opisthodactylus patagonicus Ameghino

Rheidae

Heterorhea dabbeni Rovereto

Hinasuri nehuensis Tambussi

Rhea anchorenense (Ameghino & Rusconi)
Rhea fossilis Moreno & Mercerat
Rhea mesopotamica (Agnolín & Noriega)
Rhea subpampeana Moreno & Mercerat

*********************

edited: 16.03.2019

Fossil record of the Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Ciconia gaudryi Lambrecht
Ciconia kahli Haarhoff
Ciconia louisebolesae Boles
Ciconia lucida Kurochkin
Ciconia maltha Miller
Ciconia minor Harrison
Ciconia nana (De Vis)
Ciconia sarmatica Grigorescu & Kessler
Ciconia sp. ‘Las Breas de San Felipe, Cuba’
Ciconia sp. 1 ‘Lee Creek Mine, USA’
Ciconia sp. 2 ‘Lee Creek Mine, USA’
Ciconia stehlini Jánossy

Eociconia sangequanensis Hou (?)

Leptoptilus arvernensis Milne-Edwards
Leptoptilos falconeri Milne-Edwards
Leptoptilos indicus (Harrison)
Leptoptilos lüi Zhang et al.
Leptoptilos patagonicus Noriega & Cladera
Leptoptilos pliocenicus Zubareva
Leptoptilos richae Harrison
Leptoptilos robustus Meijer & Awe Due
Leptoptilos siwalicensis Harrison
Leptoptilos sp. ‘Baringo District, Kenya’
Leptoptilos titan Wetmore

Mycteria milleri (Short)
Mycteria wetmorei Howard

Palaeoephippiorhynchus dietrichi Lambrecht

Palaeopelargus nobilis De Vis

Pelargodes magna Milne-Edwards
Pelargopsis stehlini Gaillard
Pelargopsis trouessarti Gaillard

Pseudotantalus milneedwardsii Shufeldt

Tantalus breselensis Marmora

Xenorhynchopsis minor De Vis
Xenorhynchopsis tibialis De Vis

Xenerodiopidae (?)

Xenerodiops mycter Rasmussen

*********************

edited: 14.03.2019

Fossil record of the Caprimulgiformes

Family incertae sedis

Palaeopsittacus georgei Harrison

Protocypselomorphus manfredkelleri Mayr

Archaeotrogonidae

Archaeotrogon cayluxensis Gaillard
Archaeotrogon hoffstetteri Mourer-Chauviré
Archaeotrogon nocturnus Mlíkovský
Archaeotrogon venustus Milne-Edwards
Archaeotrogon zitteli Gaillard

Hassiavis laticauda Mayr

Caprimulgidae

Ventivorus ragei Mourer-Chauviré (?)

Fluvioviridavidae

Eurofluvioviridavis robustipes Mayr

Fluvioviridavis platyrhamphus Mayr & Daniels

Nyctibiidae

Euronyctibius kurochkini Mourer-Chauviré

Paraprefica kelleri Mayr
Paraprefica major Mayr

Steatornithidae

Prefica nivea Olson

Podargidae

Masillapodargus longipes Mayr

Quercypodargus olsoni Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

edited: 12.03.2019

Fossil record of the Cuculiformes

Family incertae sedis

Eocuculus cherpinae Chandler

Cuculidae

Centropus antiquus Gervais
Centropus colossus Baird

Chambicuculus pusillus Mourer-Chauvire, Tabuce, Essid, Marivaux, Khayati, Vianey-Liaud & Ben Haj Ali

Cuculus csarnotanus Jánossy
Cuculus pannonicus Kessler

Cursoricoccyx geraldinae Martin & Megel

Eocuculus cherpinae (Chandler) (?)

Geococcyx conklingi Howard

Neococcyx mccorquodalei Weigel

Thomasococcyx philohippus Steadman

*********************

edited: 10.03.2019

Fossil record of the Piciformes

Family incertae sedis

Picavus litencicensis Mayr & Gregorova

Piciformes gen. & sp. ‘Herrlingen, Germany’

Capitonidae

Capitonides europaeus Ballmann
Capitonides protractus Ballmann

Galbulidae (?)

“Neanis” kistneri (Feduccia)

Gracilitarsidae

Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich (?)

Gracilitarsus mirabilis Mayr

Lybiidae

Pogoniolus (?) sp. ‘Kohfidisch, Austria’

Picidae

Australopicus nelsonmandelai Manegold & Louchart

Dendrocopos major ssp. submajor Jánossy
Dendrocopos praemedius Jánossy

Palaeonerpes shorti Cracraft & morony

Picus peregrinabundus Umanska
Picus pliocaenicus Kessler

Pliopicus brodkorbi Feduccia & Wilson

Ramphastidae (?)

Rupelramphastoides kopfi Mayr

Sylphornithidae

Oligosylphe mourerchauvireae Mayr & Smith

Palaegithalus cuvieri (Gervais)

Sylphornis bretouensis Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

edited: 08.03.2019

Fossil record of the Strigiformes

Heterostrigidae

Heterostrix tatsinensis Kurochkin & Dyke

Ogygoptyngidae

Ogygoptynx wetmorei Rich & Bohaska

Palaeoglaucidae

Palaeoglaux artophoron Peters
Palaeoglaux perrierensis Mourer-Chauviré

Protostrigidae

Eostrix gulottai Mayr
Eostrix martinellii Wetmore
Eostrix mimica (Wetmore)
Eostrix tsaganica Kurochkin & Dyke
“Eostrix” vincenti Harrison

Minerva antiqua (Shufeldt)
Minerva californiensis (Howard)
Minerva leptosteus (Marsh)
Minerva lydekkeri Shufeldt
Minerva saurodosis Wetmore

Oligostrix rupeliensis Fischer

Sophiornithidae

Berruornis halbedeli Mayr
Berruornis orbisantiqui Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeobyas cracrafti Mourer-Chauviré

Palaeotyto cadurcensis Mouer-Chauviré

Sophiornis quercynus Mourer-Chauviré

Strigidae

Aegolius funereus (L.)

Alasio collongensis (Ballmann)

Asio brevipes Ford & Murray
“Asio” henrici Milne-Edwards
Asio longaevus (Umanskaya)
Asio priscus Howard

Athene angelis Mourer-Chauviré
Athene cretensis Weesie
Athene cunicularia ssp. intermedia Feduccia
Athene megalopeza (Ford)
Athene noctua ssp. lunellensis Mourer-Chauviré
Athene noctua ssp. veta Jánossy
Athene trinacriae Pavia & Mourer-Chauviré

Bubo binagadensis Burchak-Abramovich
Bubo bubo ssp. davidi Mourer-Chauviré
Bubo (?) florianae Kretzoi
Bubo ibericus Meijer, Pavia, Madurell-Malapeira & Alba
Bubo leakeyae Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Bubo lignitum Giebel
Bubo osvaldoi Arrendondo & Olson
Bubo perpasta Ballmann
Bubo scandiacus ssp. gallicus (Mourer-Chauviré)
Bubo sp. ‘Soave Cava Sud, Italy’
Bubo zeylonensis ssp. lamarmorae Mlíkovský

Glaucidium explorator Emslie

Intulula brevis (Ballmann)
Intulula tinnipara Mlíkovský

Mioglaux debellatrix Mlíkovský
Mioglaux poirrieri (Milne-Edwards)

Ornimegalonyx acevedoi Arredondo
Ornimegalonyx gigas Arredondo
Ornimegalonyx minor Arredondo

Otus guildayi Brodkorb & Mourer-Chauviré
Otus wintershofensis (Ballmann)

Pulsatrix arredondoi Brodkorb

Strix brea Howard
“Strix” brevis Ballmann
Strix collongensis Ballman
Strix dakota A. H. Miller
Strix edwardsi (Ennouchi)
Strix intermedia Jánossy
Strix sp. ‘Ladds, USA’

Surnia capeki Jánossy
Surnia robusta Jánossy

Tytonidae

Basityto rummeli Mlíkovský

Miotyto montispetrosi Göhlich & Ballmann

Necrobyas arvernensis (Milne-Edwards)
Necrobyas harpax Milne-Edwards

Nocturnavis incerta (Milne-Edwards)

Prosybris antiqua (Milne-Edwards)
Prosybris media (Mourer-Chauviré)

Selenornis henrici (Milne-Edwards)

Tyto balearica (Mourer-Chauviré)
Tyto balearica ssp. cyrneichnusae Louchart
Tyto campiterrae Jánossy
Tyto gigantea Ballmann
Tyto jinniushanensis Hou
Tyto mourerchauvireae Pavia
Tyto robusta Ballmann
Tyto sanctialbani (Lydekker)

***

Note that this list is far from being complete.

*********************

edited: 27.02.2019; 06.03.2019

Fossil record of the Coliiformes

Family incertae sedis

Botauroides parvus Shufeldt

Eocolius walkeri Dyke & Waterhouse

Palaeospiza bella Allen

Chascacocoliidae

Chascacocolius cacicirostris Mayr
Chascacocolius oscitans Houde & Olson

Selmeidae 

Selmes absurdipes Peters

Sandcoleidae 

Anneavis anneae Houde & Olson

Eobucco brodkorbi Feduccia & Martin

Eoglaucidium pallas Fischer
Eoglaucidium sp. ‘Messel, Germany’

Sandcoleidae gen. & sp. ‘Messel, Germany’

Sandcoleus copiosus Houde & Olson

Tsidiiyazhi abini Ksepka et al.

Uintornis lucaris Brodkorb
Uintornis marionae Feduccia & Martin

Coliidae 

Celericolius acriala Ksepka & Clarke

Coliidae gen. & sp. ‘Hoogbutsel, Belgium’
Coliidae gen. & sp. ‘Moncucco Torinese, Italy’
Coliidae gen. & sp. ‘Grillental, Namibia’

Colius hendeyi Vickers-Rich & Haarhoff
Colius palustris (Milne-Edwards)

Limnatornis archiaci Milne-Edwards
Limnatornis consobrinus Milne-Edwards
Limnatornis paludicola Milne-Edwards

Masillacolius brevidactylus Mayr & Peters

Oligocolius brevitarsus Mayr
Oligocolius psittacocephalon Mayr

Primocolius minor Mourer-Chauviré
Primocolius sigei Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

edited: 05.03.2019

Fossil record of the Trogoniformes

Family incertae sedis (?)

Foshanornis songi Zhao, Mayr, Wang & Wang

Trogonidae

Masillatrogon pumilio Mayr

Paratrogon gallicus Milne-Edwards

Primotrogon (?) sp. ‘Steendorp, Belgium’
Primotrogon wintersteini Mayr

Septentrogon madseni Kristoffersen

Trogonidae gen. & sp. ‘Matt, Switzerland’

*********************

edited: 02.03.2019

Fossil record of the Apodiformes

Aegialornithidae

Aegialornis broweri Collins
Aegialornis gallicus Lydekker
Aegialornis leehnardti Gaillard
Aegialornis wetmorei Collins

Primapus lacki Harrison & Walker

Procuculus minutus Harrison & Walker (?)

Aegothelidae

Quipollornis koniberi Rich & McEvey

Apodidae

Apus baranensis Jánossy
Apus gaillardi Ennouchi
Apus submelba Jánossy
Apus wetmorei Ballmann

Chaetura baconica Jánossy

Collocalia buday Boles

Procypseloides ignotus (Milne-Edwards)

Scaniacypselus szarskii (Peters)
Scaniacypselus wardi Harrison

Tachornis uranoceles Olson

Cypselavidae

Argornis caucasicus Karhu

Cypselavus gaillardi Ennouchi
Cypselavus gallicus Gaillard
Cypselavus intermedius Gaillard

Parargornis messelensis Mayr

Eocypselidae

Eocypselus rowei Ksepka et al.
Eocypselus vincenti Harrison

Jungornithidae

Jungornis geraldmayri Mourer-Chauviré & Sigé
Jungornis tesselatus Karhu

Palescyvus escampensis Karhu

Trochilidae

Eurotrochilus inexpectatus Mayr
Eurotrochilus noniewiczi Bochenski
Eurotrochilus sp. ‘ Lubéron, France’

*********************

edited: 26.02.2019

Certhiops rummeli Manegold

Diese Art wurde 2008 beschrieben, so weit ich weiß anhand eines einzigen Knochens, eines vollständig erhaltenen rechten Tarsometatarsus, der immerhin der Überfamilie Certhioidea zugeordnet werden kann, nicht aber einer der rezenten Formen dieser Gruppe (Baumläufer, Mückenfänger, Zaunkönige) 

Meiner Meinung nach ähnelt der einzige bekannte Knochen jedoch am ehesten dem entsrechenden Knochen eines Kleibers.

Der Vogel wird eine Gesamtgröße von etwa 15 cm erreicht haben, war also größer als die meisten Baumläufer und kleiner als ein durchschnittlicher Kleiber.

Es handelt sich hierbei tatsächlich um den (bis jetzt) ältesten bekannten echten Singvogel der in Europa gefunden wurde.  

*********************  

Referenzen:  

[1] Albrecht Manegold: Earliest fossil record of the Certhioidea (treecreepers and allies) from the Early Miocene of Germany. Journal of Ornithology 149(2): 223-228. 2008  

Rekonstruktion; die Art erinnerte wohl am ehesten an einen Baumläufer/Kleiber-Mix

*********************  

bearbeitet: 25.02.2019

Fossil record of the Columbiformes

Columbidae

Arenicolumba prattae (Becker & Brodkorb)

Columba melitensis Lydekker (?)
Columba omnisanctorum Ballmann
Columba sp. ‘Varshets, Bulgaria’

Deliaphaps zealandiensis De Pietri, Scofield, Tennyson, Hand & Worthy

Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos Olson

Gerandia calcaria (Milne-Edwards)

Lithophaps ulnaris De Vis

Patagioenas micula Stirton

Primophaps schoddei Worthy

Rupephaps taketake Worthy et al.

*********************

edited: 24.02.2019

Fossil record of the Bucerotiformes

Bucerotidae

Bucorvus brailloni (Brunet)

Euroceros bulgaricus
 Bojev & Kovačev

Laurillardiidae (?)

Laurillardia longirostris Milne-Edwards
Laurillardia munieri Flot
Laurillardia smoleni Bochenski, Mayr, Tomek, Wertz, Bienkowska-Wasiluk & Manegold

Messelirrisoridae

Messelirrisor grandis Mayr
Messelirrisor halcyrostris Mayr
Messelirrisor grandis Mayr

Phoeniculidae

Phirriculus pinicola Mlíkovský & Göhlich

Upupidae

Upupa phoeniculides Jánossy

*********************

edited: 19.02.2019

Fossil record of bird Coraciiformes

Family incertae sedis

Paracoracias occidentalis Clarke et al.

Quasisyndactylus longibrachis Mayr

Alcedinidae

Halcyoninae gen. & sp. ‘Riversleigh, Australia’

Coraciidae

Eurystomus beremendensis Kessler

Miocoracias chenevali
 Mourer-Chauviré, Peyrouse & Hugueney

Eocoraciidae

Eocoracias brachyptera Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Geranopteridae

Geranopterus alatus Milne-Edwards
Geranopterus bohemicus Mlikovský
Geranopterus milneedwardsi Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Meropidae

Merops radobojensis (Meyer)

Momotidae

Momotidae gen. & sp. ‘Florida, USA’

Protornis glarniensis
 von Meyer (?)

Primobucconidae

Primobucco frugilegus Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré
Primobucco mcgrewi Brodkorb
Primobucco perneri Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré

Septencoracias morsensis
 Bourdon et al.

Todidae

Palaeotodus emryi Olson
Palaeotodus escampsiensis Mourer-Chauviré
Palaeotodus itardiensis Mourer-Chauviré

*********************

edited: 18.02.2019

Hezheng-Fasan – Panraogallus hezhengensis Li et. al.

Der Hezheng-Fasan wurde im Jahr 2018 beschrieben, er war sehr nah mit den heutigen Fasanen verwandt.

Das einzige bisher bekannte Fossil ist bemerkenswert da bei ihm die Trochlea erhalten geblieben ist, was darauf hindeutet, dass der Vogel zu Lebzeiten recht stimmgewaltig gewesen sein muss (ganz wie heutige Fasanenarten)

Rekonstruktion; ich habe allerdings die Sporen vergessen, die beim Fossil sehr gut zu erkennen sind

*********************

Referenzen:

[1] Zhiheng Li; Julia A. Clarke; Chad M. Eliason; Thomas A. Stidham; Tao Deng & Zhonghe Zhou: Vocal specialization through tracheal elongation in an extinct Miocene pheasant from China. Scientific Reports 8(1): 1-12. 2018

*********************

bearbeiten: 02.02.2019

Avian Musings – blog post from January 23, 2019

In his great blog (that I actually – and that’s no lie – look into at least once a week), Paul Cianfaglione writes about many bird-related things, including fine book reviews, very interesting insights into bird anatomy and everything else.

But his latest post is just unbeatable: he did make an extremely close inspection of a bird fossil from Messel that he owns.:

Messel Bird Fossil offers unique feather preservation, and more” from January 23, 2019

***

I personally have never seen close-ups of a bird fossil that are so razor-sharp and detailed!

And his bird shows features not known in any living bird – at least not all of them together in one bird.:

The beak is very big and hooked like the beak of a bird of prey or a owl, and it appears to have had sensory pits, the body feathers appear somewhat hair-like, the wing coverts are fluffy, also probably somewhat like the feather edges of recent owls, and the primaries have extremely strange appendages not known in that way from any other bird, living or extinct, but somewhat reminding on the wings of a waxwing.

What kind of a bird was that?

Well, I could try to do a reconstruction, should I?

That is just a doodle, maybe I have more time tomorrow to make a complete drawing.

Gosh, this is so exciting!   🙂

***

Take 2.:

***

Take 3.:

*********************

edited: 26.01.2019; 27.01.2019

Psittacopes lepidus Mayr & Daniels

*********************

When this tiny creature was first described it was thought to represent some parent form of the parrot order, however, it later [1] was reinvestigated and is now placed near the Passeriformes … near them, not among or in between them!  

My reconstruction is life sized, the bird here is nearly 12 cm long, the feathers, however, are not known, so are completely speculative!  

*********************  

References:

[1] Gerald Mayr: A reassessment of Eocene parrotlike fossils indicates a previously undetected radiation of zygodactyl stem group representatives of passerines (Passeriformes). Zoologica Scripta 44(6): 587–602. 2015  

*********************  

edited: 14.11.2017; 17.09.2018

Not everyone in the Ice Age was a giant

Plovers Lake Cave [see photo below] in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is known for its tens of thousands of fossils from the Pleistocene era, the remains date from about 1 Ma. to 70000 years.

*********************

Photo: Profberger

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

Among the many fossils is a so-called quadrate of a very small Agapornis sp., closely related to the Rosy-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis (Viellot)), yet very much smaller, reaching a size of only about 12 cm.

*********************

just a neat sketch of some Agapornids

It should be noted that another very small Agapornis sp. Is known from another South African site, but this has been dated tob e about 900000 years older, and furthermore these remains appear to have been lost.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas A. Stidham: A small Pleistocene lovebird (Psittacidae: Agapornis) from Plovers lake, South Africa. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 256/1: 123-128. 2010

*********************

edited: 23.05.2018

Parvigrus pohli Mayr

This not so crane-like little birdie once inhabited in the Early Oligocene, from about 32,5 to 29,5 Ma. years ago, what today is Belgium and France and certainly other parts of Europe as well.

The species reached the size of a smaller chicken, or let’s say of about 35 cm in length in my reconstruction.

The family it belongs to is thought to be most closely related to the limpkins (Aramidae), the cranes (Gruidae) and the trumpeters (Psophidae), and indeed, my reconstruction appears to show a bird that is something in between all of these three families.  

*********************

*********************

References:

[1] Gerald Mayr: A chicken-sized precursoor from the early Oligocene of France. Naturwissenschaften 92:389-393. 2005
[2] Gerald Mayr: Parvigruidae (Aves, core Gruiformes) from the early Oligocene of Belgium. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 93(1): 77-89. 2012

*********************

edited: 20.05.2018

Morsoravis sedilis Bertelli, Lindow, Dyke & Chiappe

This bird was described in 2010, it was then thought to be somehow related to the Charadriiformes respectively to the Charadriiformes “orbit”, later it was assumed to belong in some kind of relationship with other likewise “well-known” birds like Eocuculus cherpinae (Chandler), or Pumiliornis tessellatus Mayr.

The reconstruction shows a tiny bird, some 12 cm long, with a sharp-pointed beak and a quite long neck, such a bird would have needed long tail feathers to stabilize its body – so I just gave it a long tail, cause the feathers are not preserved in the Fur Formation birds.

~~~

So here is how all begins, some cut-out bone drawings put together, lines made with a pencil etc..:

some puzzling

The final result is a quite life-like bird, maybe I got enough time to make a real painting, with colors and so on ….:

not charadriiform-alike at all

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References:

[1] Sara Bertelli; Bent K. Lindow; Gareth J. Dyke; Luis M. Chiappe: A well-preserved ‘charadriform-like’ fossil bird from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. Paleontology 53(3): 507-531. 2010
[2] Gerald Mayr: On the osteology and phylogenetic affinitis of Morsoravis sedilis (Aves) from the early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 59: 23-35. 2011

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edited: 22.01.2018

‘Neanis’ kistneri (Feduccia)

‘Neanis’ kistneri, the genus name written in quotation marks, because the bird does not belong into the genus Neanis, which otherwise includes a single species, Neanis schucherti Shufeldt, is a probable member of order Piciformes, and may be somewhat related to the family Galbulidae.

The species is known so far from a single, nearly complete skeleton, and, like so many Eocene birds, it was a dwarf.

This, of course, is just a sketch.

A suboscine bird from France

I have talked about the European Oligocene epoch and its birds with brittly limbs before.  

Here’s another such brittle-limbed bird from the early Oligocene of Europe, this one has lost its wings, or at least one wing, literally … it is known from parts of the right wing.  

The most interesting fact in this case is, the bird belonged to a group of birds that are part of the Passeriformes but aren’t songbirds, these are called suboscine birds.  

The whole group of suboscine birds is now restricted to, well, it’s actually occurring worldwide, especially in South America, but it is not found in Europe today.  

The bird appears to have been of similar size to the Sunbird Asities (Neodrepanis spp.), which today inhabit the island of Madagascar (… these are suboscine birds as well, by the way).    

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I made this little drawing of this nameless creature bearing a Neodrepanis sp. in mind, but without specialized features like an elongated beak for nectar-feeding etc..  

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References:

[1] Gerald Mayr; Albrecht Manegold: A Small Suboscine-like Passeriform Bird from the Early Oligocene of France / Una Pequeña Ave Paseriforme Tipo Suboscine del Oligoceno Temprano de Francia. The Condor 108(3): 717-720. 2006

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edited: 19.07.2017

A small bird with a ‘large’ name: take 2

Rupelramphastoides knopfi Mayr  

Well, the head appears to have also been found, yet in another specimen, so here’s the reconstruction after measuring the skull.:

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It does not really differ that much from the previous version.:    

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References:

[1] Gerald Mayr: A tiny barbet-like bird from the Lower Oligocene of Germany: the smallest species and earliest substantial fossil record of the Pici (woodpeckers and allies). The Auk 122(4): 1-9. 2005 
[2] Gerald Mayr: Avian Evolution: The Fossil Record of Birds and its Paleobiological Significance. Wiley-Blackwell 2016

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edited: 18.07.2017

And yet another sketch …

… this time of Eoalulavis hoyasi Sanz, Chiappe, Perez-Moreno, Buscalioni, Moratalla, Ortega & Poyato-Ariza.

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This probably somewhat semiaquatic bird was described in 1996 from Las Hoyas near the city of Cuenca, Spain.  The decomposing plant in the background is a cycad, Almargemia dentata (Heer) Florin, from roughly about the same place and time.

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edited: 13.07.2017

Songzia spp.

This genus currently contains two species, which mainly differ by their size, Songzia acutunguis Wang et al. and the slightly smaller Songzia heidangkouensis Hou.

These two species have much in common with the recent species of the rail family, yet may not be related to them, but may be closer to the extinct Messel ‘Rails’, the Messelornithidae, which themselves may or may not be members of the Gruiformes.

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The two Songzia ‘Rails’ are small, sparrow-sized birds, in life they probably inhabited the margins of lakes and other swampy areas.

The picture is just a sketch.

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Feather impressions are not known to my knowledge, however, I thought it would be a good idea to give the bird somewhat elongated tail feathers, since the feather impressions in some messelornithid fossils show that these birds had very long tail feathers.

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source:

>Min Wang; Gerald Mayr; Jiangyong Zhang; Zhonghe Zhou: Two new skeletons of the enigmatic, rail-like avian taxon Songzia Hou, 1990 (Songziidae) from the early Eocene of China. Alcheringa: An Australian Journal of Palaeontology 36: 487-499. 2012

Kui-Schlüpfer – Kuiornis indicator Worthy et al.

Neuseeland während des unteren Miozäns (vor 19 bis 16 Millionen Jahren): ein kleiner Kui-Schlüpfer sitzt auf einem blühenden Fuchsienzweig.

Rekonstruktion; nur eine schnelle Skizze

Der Kui-Schlüpfer ist der älteste Vertreter der Acanthisittidae, einer Vogelfamilie, die man nur aus Neuseeland kennt. Er soll in seiner Größe in etwa dem Grenadier oder Grünschlüpfer (Acanthisitta chloris (Sparrmann)) entsprochen haben, einem von nur zwei überlebenden Arten der Familie, er war also ein winziges Vögelchen.

Die Blüten gehöhren zu Fuchsia antiqua D. E. Lee, Conran, Bannister, U. Kaulfuss & Mildenh., ihrerseits die älteste bekannte Fuchsienart. Ich habe sie hier als baumartige Art dargestellt, ähnlich der noch lebenden neuseeländischen Baumfuchsie (Fuchsia excorticata (J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.) L. f.).

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Referenzen:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; Suzanne J. Hand; Jacqueline M. T. Nguyen; Alan J. D. Tennyson; Jennifer P. Worthy; R. Paul Scofield; Walter E. Boles; Michael Archer: Biogeographical and Phylogenetic Implications of an Early Miocene Wren (Aves: Passeriformes: Acanthisittidae) from New Zealand. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(2): 479-498. 2010 
[2] Daphne E. Lee; John G. Conran; Jennifer M. Bannister; Uwe Kaulfuss; Dallas C. Mildenhall: A fossil Fuchsia (Onagraceae) flower and an anther mass with in situ pollen from the early Miocene of New Zealand. American Journal of Botany 100(10): 2052-2065. 2013

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bearbeitet: 08.01.2017

ISEA AF/JAM1

It seems that the Oligocene epoch in Europe produced a lot of birds with brittly legs, since this nameless thing (ISEA AF/JAM1 is the ‘name’ given to the bones) is the next bird known only from a single leg (the twig-like thing between the drawing and the pen).

It appears to have been related to the Apodiformes or the Upupiformes, and according to my reconstruction may have reached a length of only about 6 cm.

Gosh, I need to use colors again at last!!!

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source:

>Zbigniew M. Bochenski; Teresa Tomek; Ewa Swidnicka: A tiny short-legged bird from the early Oligocene of Poland. Geologica Carpathica 67(5): 463-469. 2016