Archiv der Kategorie: alles mögliche

Vogelfüße

Vögel besitzen eine erstaunliche Vielfalt an verschiedensten Fußformen, von denen ich hier die sechs häufigsten vorstellen möchte.

Der Hallux (1. Zeh) besitzt zwei Phalangen, von denen die hintere jedoch meist reduziert und oft mit dem eigentlichen Fußknochen verschmolzen ist. Die restlichen Zehen besitzen jeweils eine ihrer Anordnung am Fuß entsprechende Anzahl an Phalangen, d.h. der 2. Zeh besitzt zwei, der 3. Zeh drei und der 4. Zeh vier Phalangen.

***

Die folgenden Skizzen zeigen jeweils einen rechten Fuß von oben betrachtet.

Anisodactylie – die weitaus häufigste Zehenstellung, mit einem rückwärts gerichteten Hallux und vorwärts gerichtetem ersten, zweiten und dritten Zeh
Tridactylie – Hallux zurückgebildet; z.B. bei den Casuariiformes (Emus/Kasuare) und einigen Arten der Ordnung Charadriiformes (Regenpfeiferartige)
Didactylie – Hallux und zweiter Zeh zurückgebildet; findet sich heutzutage ausschließlich bei den Struthioniformes (Strauße)
Zygodactylie – Hallux und vierter Zeh rückwärts gerichtet; z.B. bei den Piciformes (Spechtvögel) Psittaciformes (Papageien)
Heterodactylie – Hallux und zweiter Zeh rückwärts gerichtet; findet sich (soweit bisher bekannt) nur bei den Trogoniformes (Trogone)
Pamprodactylie – alle Zehen mehr oder weniger vorwärts gerichtet; findet sich bei heutigen Vögeln nur bei den Apodidae/Apodiformes (Segler) und Coliiformes (Mausvögel) und bei diesen beiden Gruppen auch nur fakultativ

Es gibt noch weitere Fußformen, bei diesen handelt es sich aber Varianten der oben abgebildeten Formen (Tridactylie bei gleichzeitiger Zygodactylie bei einigen Spechtarten), so dass ich dieses Thema hier (zumindest momentan) erst einmal nicht weiter vertiefen werde.

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bearbeitet: 22.12.2019

Fossilrekord der Ordnung Pelecaniformes

Ardeidae

Ardea aurelianensis Milne-Edwards
Ardea brunhuberi von Ammon
Ardea effosa von Meyer
Ardea formosa Milne-Edwards
Ardea latipes von Meyer
Ardea lignitum Gibel
Ardea paloccidentalis Shufeldt
Ardea perplexa Milne-Edwards
Ardea piveteaui Brunet
Ardea polkensis Brodkorb

Ardeagradis arborea Autor ?

Egretta subfluvia Becker

Gnotornis aramiellus Wetmore

Matuku otagoense Scofield et al.

Nycticorax fidens Brodkorb 
Nycticorax sp. ‚Fayyum, Ägypten‘

Palaeophoyx columbiana McCoy

Pikaihao bartlei Worthy et al.

„Proardea“ deschutteri Mayr, De Pietri, Scofield & Smith

Proardeola walkeri Harrison

Zeltornis ginsburgi Balouet

Pelecanidae

Pelecanus cadimurka Rich & Van Tets
Pelecanus cautleyi Davies
Pelecanus fraasi Lyddeker
Pelecanus gracilis Milne-Edwards
Pelecanus grandiceps Des Vis
Pelecanus halieus Wetmore
Pelecanus intermedius Fraas
Pelecanus odessanus Widhalm
Pelecanus proavus De Vis
Pelecanus schreiberi Olson
Pelecanus sivalensis Davies
Pelecanus tirarensis Miller

Threskiornithidae

Actiornis anglicus Lydekker

Ajaja chione Emslie

Eudocimus leiseyi Emslie
Eudocimus peruvianus Campbell

Gerandibis pagana (Milne-Edwards)

Geronticus cf. calvus (Boddaert) ‚Gauteng, Südafrika‘

Ibidopodia palustris Milne-Edwards

Milnea gracilis Lydekker

Minggangia changgouensis Hou

Protibis cnemialis Ameghino

Rhynchaeites messelensis Wittich
Rhynchaeites sp. ‚Fur Formation, Dänemark‘
Rhynchaeites tanta (Waterhouse et al.)

Sanshuiornis zhangi Wang, Mayr, Zhang & Zhou

Vadaravis brownae Smith, Grande & Clarke

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bearbeitet: 19.12.2019

Some Micronesian beauties

A while ago I found this Japanese book about the birds of Micronesia online while searching for I don’t no what, it originally probably included more than these three plates, however, these are the only ones that I could find and I want to share them here because they are so exceedingly beautiful.:

Tokutaro Momiyama: Horyo Nanyo Shoto-san chorui. Tokyo: Nihon Chogakkai: Taisho 11. 1922
(public domain)

***

I will name the birds with their current names in the order in which they are depicted.

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White-throated Ground Dove (Alopecoenas xanthonurus ), female and male 
Caroline Ground Dove (Alopecoenas kubaryi)
White-browed Crake (Amaurornis cinereus)
Pohnpei Lorikeet (Trichoglossus rubiginosus)
Purple-capped Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus ponapensis)
Micronesian Imperial-Pigeon (Ducula oceanica ssp. monacha)
Kosrae Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus hernsheimi), juvenile
Truk Monarch (Monarcha rugensis), young male, adult male, and female
Yap Olive White-eye (Zosterops oleagineus)
Truk White-eye (Rukia ruki)

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edited: 20.10.2019

Starling sketches

I made some sketches today, they’re supposed to be Rarotongan Starlings (Aplonis cinerascens).

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a somewhat transformed copy

I personally prefer these freehand sketches, at least the one on the right side, it somehow looks more life-like than the drawing above.

some freehanded sketches

Oooh – sketching in the zoo!

We were in the little zoo in Gotha today where we go almost once a year, and for the first time I took my sketchbook with me, which, however, wasn’t a great idea since there were way too many people and I could not really take the time to sketch something beside that one.:

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… it’s a Blacksmith Lapwing (Vanellus armatus)

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Micronesia – the state of our knowledge of its native birds

Have you ever heard of Lamotrek, Ngulu, or Woleai? 

No? 

Neither did I ….

These are the names of some of the atolls that form a squadron-like swarm around the Yap Islands – you have also never heard of the Yap Islands?

Well, let me help you out here, the Yap Islands are a part of the Federated States of Micronesia, which again are a part of Micronesia which is a name for the region of small islands that lie east of the Philippines, north of New Guinea, the Solomons and Vanuatu, and west of Polynesia.

***

I asked for the name Woleai especially because I only recently found out that the White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant)) ‚recently‘ expanded its area of distribution from Southeast Asia to exactly this part of Micronesia. [1]

The photo below shows that species, the name of the photographer is just a coincidence, I swear.   🙂

I wrote ‚recently‘ in quotation marks because this bird apparently appeared here already in the 1970s, but no one took any notice of that until 2009, when some westerners cought one bird on the Woleai atoll.

This event is a very good exemplary for the whole state of the ornithological research in that region – we just do not know anything.

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References:

[1] Donald W. Buden; Stanley Retogral: Range expansion of the White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) into Micronesia. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(4): 784-788. 2010

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Photo: Lip Kee Yap

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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edited: 01.06.2019

Irenidae – cryptic species

The excitingly beautiful Fairy-Bluebirds are officially a small family of only two species, the Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena cyanogastra) and the Asian Fairy-Bluebird (Irena puella), both including a number of subspecies.  

***  

Following a study from 2012 [1], however, there appear to exist eight species.:  

Andaman Fairy-Bluebird (Irena andamanica Abdulali) (formerly Irena puella ssp. andamanica Abdulali)  

Indonesian Fairy-Bluebird (Irena crinigera Sharpe) (formerly Irena puella ssp. crinigera Sharpe)  

Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena cyanogstra Vigors) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. cyanogastra Vigors)  

Ella’s Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena ellae Steere) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. ellae Steere)  

Hoogstral’s Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena hoogstraali Rand) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. hoogstraaliRand)  

Black-shouldered Philippine Fairy-Bluebird (Irena melanochlamys Sharpe) (formerly Irena cyanogastra ssp. melanochlamys Sharpe; but – was not included in this study!)  

Asian Fairy-Bluebird (Irena puella (Latham)), including three subspecies:  Irena puella ssp. malayensis F. Moore Irena puella ssp. puella (Latham) Irena puella ssp. turcosa Walden  

Palawan Fairy-Bluebird (Irena tweeddalei Sharpe) (formerly Irena puella ssp. tweeddalei Sharpe)  

***  

It is very interesting that most of these ‘new’ species were originally described as distinct species.  

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Palawan Fairy-Bluebird (Irena tweeddalei); above, and Black-shouldered Philippine fairy-Bluebird (Irena melanochlamys); below  

Depiction from: ‘R. Bowdler Sharpe: On the birds collected by Professor J. B. Steere in the Philippine Archipelago. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2(6): 307-355. 1877’  
(public domain)  

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update:

The Palawan Fairy-Bluebirds is now officially considered a full species and is included as such in the HBW Checklist of 2016. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Maria Moltesen; Martin Irestedt; Jon Fjeldså, Per G. P. Ericson, Knud A. Jønsson: Molecular phylogeny of Chloropsidae and Irenidae – Cryptic species and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 903-914. 2012 
[2] Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions; Ill edition Vol. 1 & 2. 2014/2017  

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edited: 15.01.2016; 17.09.2018

Plastic pollution and birds

You probably have heard of plastic pollution before, and you may also have heard of the fact that some seabirds are highly threatened by it. But why is this so?

For millions of years seabirds like the albatrosses kept feeding from the ocean’s surface. It was an easy way to collect food, just flying along the ocean’s surface taking up all things floating about all they caught were little animals, and the worst things they could catch would have been little pieces of drifting wood or other plant material like algae.

And – that’s what these birds still do today.

Yet, the situation has changed dramatically. The surfaces of the oceans all over the world are covered with larger, as well as smaller to tiny bits of plastic debris, albatrosses just catch all of these little pieces and feed their chicks with them.

That is why perhaps all of them are containing plastic in their stomachs, and many of them, far to many of them, are dying from starvation despite having their stomachs full of „food“.

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The movie „Albatross“ from 2017 [?] by Chris Jordan shows the fate of the Laysan Albatross colony on the Midway atoll in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands chain, it includes many graphic and heartbraking scenes of dead and dying albatross chicks, and it gives us an idea of the real situation of planet Earth’s oceans.

These are nightmarish scenes, yet there are still people [or rather the degenerated brain-less truth-deniers that we come along so many times these days] that state that all of this is fake!

The plastic pollution isn’t a fake, nor is it the devastating state of the populations of so many sea-dwelling animals including seabirds.

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The following pictures show decayed albatross carcasses, all photographed on the northeastern Hawaiian Islands, and all containing plastic pieces inside.

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All photos: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 24.07.2018

Eleven steps to draw a bird

Hi there!  

It’s coffee/tea time, whatever you prefer … and it’s dark outside, and thus it’s dark inside too.  

***

I have decided to make another >step by step<, or >how to do<, or whatever you may call it series, of how I draw a bird, this time it is another extinct one, yet only known from two of its bones, so the coloration is just imagined.  

1: a sketch is made    

2: the sketch is fixed with the pencil    

3: the sketch is finished, the surroundings are included    

4: the rubber color is put on the bird    

5: the rubber color has dried, the background is created with water color and a sponge    

6: the background has dried, the rubber color is rubbed away    

7: the actual coloring begins, I use my loved watercolor pencils    

8/9: the watercolor is blurred with a brush and with water      

10: the water has dried, the details are now worked out using the watercolor pencils again    

11: the most important step, probably; the last details are worked out with a pencil, and the white dot is placed inside the eye    

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The end result is a drawing of a Cuban Tapaculo (Scytalopus sp.)  

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson; Evgeny N. Kurochkin: Fossil evidence of a tapaculo in the Quaternary of Cuba (Aves: Passeriformes: Scytalopodidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100(2): 353-357. 1987

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edited: 09.11.2017

Darwin’s Finches or Galápagos Finches

Here is an updated species list, following “Aves – A Taxonomy in Flux”.:

Beck’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. becki)
Santa Fe Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. bifasciata)
Espanola Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. cinerascens)
Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. fusca)
San Cristobal Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. luteola)
Genovesa Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. mentalis)
Ridgway’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. ridgwayi)

Green Warbler Finch (Certhidea olivacea)

Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (Geospiza acutirostris)

Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. conirostris)
Darwin’s Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. darwini)

Sharpe’s Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis)

Medium Ground-Finch (Geospiza fortis)

Small Ground-Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa)

Mangrove Finch (Geospiza heliobates)

Large Ground-Finch (Geospiza magnirostris)

Woodpecker Finch (Geospiza pallidus ssp. pallidus)
Fernandina Woodpecker Finch (Geospiza pallidus ssp. productus)
San Cristobal Woodpecker Finch (Geospiza pallidus ssp. striatipectus)

Small Tree-Finch (Geospiza parvulus ssp. parvulus)
Salvin’s Small Tree-Finch (Geospiza parvulus ssp. salvini)

Genovesa Cactus-Finch (Geospiza propinqua)

Fernandina Large Tree-Finch (Geospiza psittacula ssp. affinis)
Pinta Large Tree-Finch (Geospiza psittacula ssp. habeli)
Large Tree-Finch (Geospiza psittacula ssp. psittacula)

Medium Tree-Finch (Geospiza pauper)

Vampire Finch (Geospiza septentrionalis)

Pinta Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. abingdoni)
Common Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. intermedia)
Rothschild’s Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. rothschildi)
San Salvador Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. scandens)

Vegetarian Finch (Platyspiza crassirostris)

***

As before, I decided to arrange the names simply in alphabetical order, and to exclude the species’ authors (and the Cocos Island Finch (Pinaroloxias inornata (Gould)), which is one of the Darwin’s Finches but does not inhabit the Galápagos Islands).

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References:

[1] Heather L. Farrington; Lucinda P. Lawson; Courtney M. Clark; Kenneth Petren: The evolutionary history of Darwin’s finches: Speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape. Evolution 68(10): 2932-2944. 2014
[2] Sangeet Lamichhaney; Jonas Berglund; Markus Sällman Almén; Khurram Maqbool; Manfred Grabherr; Alvaro Martinez-Barrio; Marta Promerová; Carl-Johan Rubin; Chao Wang; Neda Zamani; B. Rosemary Grant; Peter R. Grant; Matthew T. Webster; Leif Andersson: Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing. Nature 518: 371-375. 2015
[3] http://jboyd.net/Taxo/taxo1.html

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edited: 03.12.2016

Darwin’s Finches or Galápagos Finches

… having criticized the “A Guide to the Birds of the Galápagos Islands” for not naming the numerous subspecies of the finches, I will now add here a list of all these subspecies, I have named them, to the best of my knowledge, with common names as well.:

Mangrove Finch (Camarhynchus heliobates)

Woodpecker Finch (Camarhynchus pallidus ssp. pallidus)
Fernandina Woodpecker Finch (Camarhynchus pallidus ssp. productus)
San Cristobal Woodpecker Finch (Camarhynchus pallidus ssp. striatipectus)

Small Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus parvulus ssp. parvulus)
Salvin’s Small Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus parvulus ssp. salvini)

Fernandina Large Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus psittacula ssp. affinis)
Pinta Large Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus psittacula ssp. habeli)
Large Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus psittacula ssp. psittacula)

Medium Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus pauper)

Beck’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. becki)
Santa Fe Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. bifasciata)
Espanola Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. cinerascens)
Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. fusca)
San Cristobal Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. luteola)
Genovesa Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. mentalis)
Ridgway’s Gray Warbler Finch (Certhidea fusca ssp. ridgwayi)

Green Warbler Finch (Certhidea olivacea)

Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. conirostris)
Darwin’s Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. darwini)
Genovesa Large Cactus-Finch (Geospiza conirostris ssp. propinqua)

Fernandina Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis ssp. debilirostris)
Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis ssp. difficilis)
Vampire Ground-Finch (Geospiza difficilis ssp. septentrionalis)

Medium Ground-Finch (Geospiza fortis)

Small Ground-Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa)

Large Ground-Finch (Geospiza magnirostris)

Pinta Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. abingdoni)
Common Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. intermedia)
Rothschild’s Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. rothschildi)
San Salvador Cactus-Finch (Geospiza scandens ssp. scandens)

Vegetarian Finch (Platyspiza crassirostris)

~~~

Some of these subspecies may now warrant species status (for example the Vampire Finch or Vampire Ground-Finch), however, I’m not yet fully into that matter … did I mention before that it appears to be quite difficult to get good information about these birds?

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… hm, maybe I was a bit too excessive with the tags ….   😛

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edited: 02.12.2016